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第六届上海景观论坛于2019年11月2日下午在上海机遇中心成功举办。此次论坛尝试从一个广义的主题出发，洞悉景观行业的困境。以AECOM上海景观部门设计总监Lee Parks先生提出的失序为主话题，三组演讲嘉宾围绕“城市失序（Urban Disorder）”、“机制混乱（System Disorder）”及“环境变化（Climate Disorder）”三个细分方向展开了深层次、多方位地探讨。他们基于自身的学术背景及在中国及国际的实践经验，与观众分享了他们对于景观技术、感知、社会、精神等方面的深入观察与建议。
The sixth Shanghai Landscape Forum was held at the AIO Space on the afternoon of November 2nd, 2019. This forum tries to observe the difficulties of landscape profession from a broad theme “Disorder”, raised by Lee Parks, Director of Landscape Architecture AECOM Shanghai. Based on the practice in China and overseas, the guest speakers discussed landscape technology, sensation, social responsibilities, and spiritual contributions. A series of rich-layered, inter-disciplinary topic was discussed around the three topics -“Urban Disorder”, “System Disorder” and “Climate Disorder”.
本次论坛首次尝试公开征稿，并由AECOM, Sasaki Associates, SWA, Aspect Studios, HASSELL五家国际设计公司的董事、主创设计师组成审稿委员会，从30余份来稿中投票选取7篇作为论坛演讲内容。5家深度合作媒体及3家特邀媒体与论坛主办方展开战略合作,并对此次活动进行宣传报道。陈逸飞工作室-上海逸飞·环境艺术公司、杜纳如密原石厚板、Brickform砖形、及上海酷潘游乐设施作为本次活动的赞助商出席，共同助力上海景观论坛。论坛采用中英文双语同声传译，以面向更广大行业群体。同时上海景观论坛也一直是美国景观设计师协会ASLA PPN海外倾力支持的盛会。
The forum had the first attempt to accept public applications for presentation. A review board committee is formed up by principals and directors from 5 international firms，which are AECOM, Sasaki Associates, SWA, Aspect Studios and HASSELL. Finally, 7 presentations stood out from over 30 applications. 5 In-depth cooperation media and 3 invited media provided continuous coverage of the event. Yifei Chen Art Studio, DONNERRUMI, Brickform and KOMPAN are the sponsors supporting this event. The forum used real time translation for broader audience. American Society of Landscape Architecture (ASLA) PPN is also supporting this event.
上海景观论坛委员会在努力推动景观建筑设计在中国，特别是上海市场的发展的同时，也积极促进与海外同类型权威组织与机构的交流与互动。在2019年11月16日于美国圣地亚哥举行的美国景观建筑师协会（ASLA）全美年会上，上海景观论坛的三位主要发起人，AECOM上海景观部门设计总监Lee Parks先生、Sasaki Associates上海总监张斗女士，以及SWA集团董事张树仪女士将进行主题教育宣讲，介绍上海景观论坛的发展历程、经验及未来计划。
Shanghai Landscape Forum (SLF) Committee aims to promote the development of landscape architecture in China, especially in Shanghai market. Meanwhile, SLF actively reaches out to those authoritative organizations and institutions overseas.
The three main founders of SLF, Lee Parks, Director of Landscape Architecture AECOM Shanghai, Dou Zhang, Principal of Sasaki Shanghai office, and Shuyi Chang, SWA Group Principal, will present SLF as a continue education session to share SLF’s history, experience, and future plans at San Diego ASLA Annual Conference on November 16th, 2019.
Below are the summary of the 6th SLF presentations:
▼活动视频 Active video
Session A: 城市失序Urban Disorder
Mental Disorder – A Strategic Plan to Tackle with Urban Mental Issue
演讲嘉宾：蔡淦东 Gandong Cai、蔡明洁 Mingjie Cai
Gandong and Mingjie’s presentation brought people into a spiritual world of design. They think that the order in our cities in regard to space or system has a strong relationship with public health, which brings up the issue of order/disorder as a recent concern within the design disciplines. Unlike physical health which has been fully discussed, mental health issues that aggregate the disorderliness in urban milieu have long been neglected. The growing disconnection between people’s mental demands and the living environment in our communities is calling for the engagement of design disciplines to mitigate the problem.
Under the topic of urban disorder, their research investigates the possibility of inserting a new layer of “spiritual infrastructure”, after the gray infrastructure and the green infrastructure, as an urban strategy to tackle mental issues with a systematic approach, and establishes a comprehensive sharing structure. A scenario-based model was mentioned as a research method for coping identified mental issues in different cities.
The presentation introduced the award-winning project in which the presenters selected Tokyo for discussing how urban loneliness as a mental disorder has caused social problems in the city. To tackle with the urban disorder, a spiritual infrastructure network of Urban Tree Hole is designed to provide small places in the city for lonely individuals to stay. In the plan the proposers inserted tree-hole spaces by either reinvigorating redundant store on the street side, creating corridor between buildings, or excavating underground space. Also, landscape elements are introduced into the space as “companions” for the lonely people in the proposal.
Session B: 机制混乱System Disorder
Social Framework of Landscape
演讲嘉宾：钟惠城 Huicheng Zhong （钟先生因特殊原因未能到场，由委员会成员叶闻博Terry Ye为其代讲）
It is an ideal scenario for landscape architects to be actively involved in communication among parties and community participation. However, for traditional commercial projects, it’s hard to break the frozen mechanism where chances for open space and public engagement are rare. How do landscape architects use design itself to open a window for public engagement is the key focus for Huicheng.
Based on Lab D+H’s design practice, the speech will share experience and lessons regarding using public space design frameworks to challenge privately owned spaces. Facing capital driven commercial projects, designers should be smart enough to hide their open space strategy within the commercial logics for a win-win result.
在以资本为驱动的商业环境下，Lab D+H基于大众利益的立场，发展出了一套具有社会属性的设计框架。他们提出景观社会框架的六大属性：1. 斡旋公共与私有；2. 斡旋商业利益；3. 具有广泛的包容性；4. 斡旋品质与速度；5. 具有设计结果的开放性；6. 具有时间维度上的远见。
In a capital driven commercial environment, Lab D+H has developed a design framework with social character, based on the stand point of public interest. Their social landscape framework contains six characters: 1. To be able to negotiate between the public and the private; 2. To be able to negotiate between commercial interest and social interest; 3. To be inclusive in terms of design; 4. To be able to negotiate between quality and speed; 5. To be open-ended in terms of result; 6. To be visionary with resistance at the beginning.
City on the Run
As urbanization entering the next phase, citizens have more individualized and comprehensive need for urban landscape space and call for new social system for urban landscape area. As a night runner and an architectural designer, Sijia Liu witnessed and experienced how different forces drove the formation and iteration of urban landscape through her past 4 years in Chicago and other cities. By comparing landscape and space design with riverfront parks in Shanghai, she observed critical issues in landscape practice caused by system disorder.
In this talk, by taking Chicago and Shanghai as instances, the presenter analyzed and compared the social systems behind the urban landscape between Chinese and foreign cities. Then she discussed the direction and methods of sustainably optimizing the social system in China from three aspects of improving the transparency of public projects, improving public communication, and developing the cooperation with local communities. Through the positive interaction among the project, public groups and citizens, increasing number of citizens would be encouraged to make efforts for the development of Shanghai landscape and social system.
Session C: 环境恶化Climate Disorder
Biophilic Eco-design: adaptive measures at source in response to disorder
公司名：张唐景观 自然工作室 | Biophilic Lab, Z+T Studio
Due to the increasing rate of climate change in recent years, the public are anxious about the mitigation strategies and adaptive measures. It is feared that the failure of this work will lead to irreversible consequences. Because of this, adaptive measures such as low impact development (LID) have also been significantly improved in the past decade.
Dr. Mo Wang’s research focuses on two aspects, one is the spatial assessment of urban hydrology risk, and the other is spatial allocation strategies and optimization of adaptive measures. In the aspect of risk spatial assessment, the research should focus on establishing the relationship between characteristic conditions and risk, and constructing the corresponding simplified model algorithm. In spatial allocation strategies and optimization, the research tries to integrate external dynamic factors such as climate change and urbanization through scenario simulation. This will not only help designers to understand the impact of recent decisions on the long-term environment, but also help to find potential uncertainties to develop more comprehensive adaptive measures.
Dr. Mo Wang introduced how to make LID application decisions using a multi scenario simulation using Dory Park as an example, demonstrating a meticulous study for ecological design. Associated construction was finished during observation and negotiation with nature. However, LID methods has its uncertainty during research. The accumulation of research data could not satisfy the requirement of overwhelming practices. Some basic studies of the method still need to be enhanced.
City Under Pressure
Simon Yue introduced ARUP’s winning proposal for Shanghai Drainage System Planning Competition. The project first identifies the overall problem of the infrastructural problems of Shanghai’s drainage system and then proposes a methodology of quantifying the city into typologies in create a systematic approach to this complex and enormous problem.
Using Machine Learning, the proposal begins quantifying the districts into categories to better communicate the complexities of the project and near term and future strategies that would help Shanghai cope with climate change. Near term and cost effective strategies involved green landscape interventions to filter pollution and sedimentation/dredge before they go into Shanghai’s aging sewerage system.
Using Green, Blue, and Grey color morphology to indicate the intricacy of the systems, the proposal that further tackles the problem of an aging and deteriorating Grey (Sewerage System), the design proposes to expand and synergize the grey system with the above green system to create a cost efficient, implementable, and manageable design solution that catered to the near and far term vision of the city.
Fluctuating Ecology: To Mitigate Disorder in Critical Riparian Zone
演讲嘉宾：蔡淦东 Gandong Cai
China’s cities are experiencing a top-down urbanization process rapidly. The diverse natural and social system, at the meantime, are rarely reflected in the planning which results in the loss of balance and order. The presenter argues that the riparian zone in urban area are playing a critical role in both territorial and city scale, but being neglected or treated inappropriately, which results in a functional dis-order within this sensitive environmental zone.
Attribute to Chongqing’s dramatic change in topography and water level, as well as the rapid urban planning and the implementation of road system, new disorder appeared between the urban system and the local natural/living environment. With multi-disciplinary knowledge and cross-scales design methodologies, landscape architect has the ability to recover the displacement between planning and environment, and establish the new order in the city.
Sasaki team tackles with the questions by developing the research of the flooding area and waterfront accessibility, and comes up with a new landscape system in order to challenge the current disorder. The design team demonstrated design from four perspectives: ecology, activity, connection, and vision. By reconstructing riverfront ecology, creating various waterfront landscape spaces, enhancing accessibility and connectivity, activating landmark value, the design created a lively waterfront park for both residents and tourists with Chongqing local style. The design team suggests a guideline and toolkit for such a critical landscape practice type, for both providing reference and methods for future projects, and enhancing the understanding of riparian zone during the planning and decision-making process.
Landscape Performance Measured by Animals: New Perspectives of Ecological Recovery – Design for Animals
公司名：JStudio Research Lab
演讲嘉宾：焦健 Jian Jiao
In the ecosystem, animals actually are the most sensitive to environment, who have strong perception to environmental changes and respond to it through their action, number and herds. Jian’s presentation discussed environmental changes based on animals’ change. If we take animals as our standard to evaluate performance, using animals as references to and representations of “landscape performance”, which seems that one designs for animals while in fact, one designs for ecological recoveries.
Two different studies were raised. The first study relates to BBC’s once recorded the reindeers’ migration in Scandinavia Peninsula. It is not only the magnificent sight in the animal kingdom, but also the symbol of Nordic culture. Designers reconsidered ecological corridor for deer migration based on weights of landscape, and meanwhile alleviate the trends of permafrost thawing in Nordic areas by leading deer herds to eat plants during their migration.
The second study relates to fish. It has been long discussed that Gezhou Dam in Yichang section of Yangtze River blocked the Chinese sturgeon migration. Designers hope to open up the abandoned power plant area of the dam, use sand islands to alleviate water velocity, to form Fishway-Island Landscape downstream and allow migration through dam. Designers use parametrization programming combined with models in physical experiments to initiate three experiments on simulation. Each process is based on consideration of quantification and landscape performance as to find evaluate out the best strategy for landscape design.
Summary: A Discovery in Disorder
For all kinds of challenges in design, such as city, system, climate, etc., disorder is indeed a common condition to face for landscape architects, yet the interesting part of design is to avoid or absorb problem through clever methods in complex reality.
In the meantime, designers need to realize that design cannot solve all problems — design is only a small part of everyday life. However, designers could use design thinking and methods to gather resources and forces to gradually realize ecological harmony, systematic transparency, and urban openness through complicated social and capital context, which need patience and efforts from the whole profession.
Shanghai Landscape Forum will continue to focus on cutting edge topics for landscape architecture profession and to unfold associated discussion. We look forward to your continuous participation and attention.
About Shanghai Landscape Forum
上海景观论坛（SLF）是由AECOM, SASAKI, SWA, SOM, ASPECT Studios, HASSELL, TLS，Gossamer等多家国际性景观设计公司自发组成的委员会，定期开展的主题性景观行业分享盛会。自2017年起，上海景观论坛已在众多设计师的共同努力下，成功举办5届活动。委员会一直以”开拓新的实践，催化设计创新、影响政策变革；提升公众对于景观重要贡献的认识；倡导景观行业，使之汇入社会进步的主流推动力”为活动使命，不断尝试新的形式、探讨新的主题，希望以此提升景观行业的影响力，并推进行业的可持续发展。
Shanghai Landscape Forum is a themed landscape professional sharing event initiated by Sasaki, AECOM and SWA in 2017, with participation from SOM, ASPECT Studios, HASSELL, TLS, Gossamer and many other international landscape companies, the forum has grown rapidly. The forum is aimed to ” pioneer new practices that result in design innovation and influence on policy transformation; raise public awareness of landscape architecture’s vital contribution, and advocate landscape architecture into the mainstream driving force for social progress”, and to promote our profession and build a more sustainable tomorrow for the profession.