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Brusnika：By analysing and reflecting on its own experience in development, observing residential areas and adapting a European approach, Brusnika’s landscape architects have come up with internal landscaping norms. Numerically expressed, the standard facilitates scaling and ensures quality in design.
▽ Brusnika已建成的项目展示 Completed projects of Brusnika
Brusnika制定并实施的规范 Brusnika has developed and put into effect the following norms
1.The scope of landscaping is 0.25 cubic metres per 1 square metre for courtyard areas and 0.1 cubic metres per 1 square metre for street areas.
2.The density of planting is a minimum of 6 deciduous shrubs, 8 perennials and 5 conifer shrubs per square metre.
3.Playgrounds are sited in locations with a minimal 3-hour daily insolation.
4.First floors house apartments with terraces linked to the landscape.
5.70% of courtyard and 30% of street is landscaped.
6.10 to 15 year-old adult trees with trunks of 30 to 35 cm in circumference are selected in nurseries.
These are the ground rules for Brusnika’s architects while creating new residential quarters and civic spaces. The norms combined with the principles of landscape design form the bedrock of the company’s approach.
▽ Brusnika已建成的项目展示 Completed projects of Brusnika
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡市”Solnechny”住宅区庭院 Courtyard in the residential area “Solnechny”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Landscape design is done at the phase of the project concept, after conducting an urban development and contextual analyses. The first stage is to create functional zoning and identify the courtyard and street planning patterns based on the main pedestrian connections and vehicular traffic. Next, the landscape workshop team maps out buffers between the functional zones, the main routes and road users. Aside from landscaping zone buffers, greenery is also embedded inside the zones: the playground is landscaped, plants are chosen for workout and recreational areas, and so on. Thus, all greenery can be categorised as divisional and space filling within specific zones.
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Shishimskaya gorka”住宅区露台附近的绿色缓冲区 Green buffer near the terraces in the residential area “Shishimskaya gorka”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
▽ 露台附近的绿色缓冲区 Green buffer near the terraces
▽俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Solnechny”住宅区的行道树 Alley tree planting in the residential area “Solnechny”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
根据空间类型选择植物 The second stage is plant selection according to space types.
Street greening implies planting trees alley-wise, forming shrub and perennial groups resistant to harsh environments. Apart from choosing plants in line with their functions, colour schemes are also considered. A minimum of 20% of greenery should be coloured, whether it is the bark, leaves, fruit or blossoms. The plants are picked according to their flowering time, allowing of predictable monthly colour change and a desirable seasonal colour scheme for the courtyard. Traditionally, evergreen conifers are the highlights of any landscape due to their bright colours, which is especially relevant for the Ural and Siberian climatic conditions.
▽俄罗斯新西伯利亚“European riverfront”小区庭院彩色植物 Courtyard in the microdistrict “European riverfront”, Novosibirsk, Russia
▽俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Solnechny”住宅区冬季庭院中的常绿针叶树 Evergreen conifers in the winter courtyard of the residential area “Solnechny”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Despite the zone division, greening should be evenly spread across the whole area. The ratio of deciduous shrubs to conifers, hedges and perennials stands approximately at 1 to 1. The project context and its environment may vary but the principles still apply.
▽俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Sukhodolsky quarter”庭院 Courtyard in the “Sukhodolsky quarter”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
发展动植物生态系统 The next stage is the development of flora and fauna ecosystems
This is the step where architects design rain gardens and assess opportunities to create natural biodiversity zones drawing on selected plants. For instance, if flower beds are conceived as a rain garden, they should contain flood resistant shrubs. If a street is designed as an ecological corridor, it should comprise perennial melliferous plants, conifers as a haven for birds, and bug hotels. All these filters restrict the plant range, leaving only the tried and tested species, well suited for specific environments. At this stage all selected plants are also screened for cold-resistance or climate adaptability, as well as their preference for shady or sunny locations.
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Sukhodolsky quarter”的鸟类投食器 Bird feeder in the “Sukhodolsky quarter”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
All the above mentioned stages are used while designing both the street, and the courtyard. The only difference is that the courtyard gets more zoning variety with sports grounds and playgrounds, cosy recreational spaces, fire access roads, house entrance zones, private terrace frontage areas, green buffers and pedestrian zones. The courtyard geometry is achieved by means of hardscaping, varied paving, lawns, surfacing, greening and using distinctive elements, such as retaining walls. Creating a green buffer, plants divide the house from the courtyard, while shrubs and trees act as landscaping instruments.
▽俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Sukhodolsky quarter”庭院分区 Zoning of the courtyard in the “Sukhodolsky quarter”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
▽俄罗斯秋明“European quarter”休闲区景观设计 Landscaping of recreation areas in the “European quarter”, Tyumen, Russia
▽俄罗斯秋明“Vidny”小区游客停车场的景观美化 Landscaping of guest parking lots in the microdistrict “Vidny”, Tyumen, Russia
▽俄罗斯新西伯利亚“European riverfront”小区入口附近的绿色缓冲区 Green buffers near the entrance to the entrance in the microdistrict “European riverfront”, Novosibirsk, Russia
Great emphasis is placed on straight trees, which shape street space and courtyard design. An elevated crown opens the retail front to both pedestrians and motorists. Such trees create shaded recreational zones inside the yard. The principles of landscape design also apply to courtyard greening as professionals carefully plan the combination of landscape and architecture. To exemplify this, one can consider an integral composition comprising a tree surrounded by a clump of shrubs made visible from an entrance porch, or observable routes planned due to carefully arranged greenery.
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Solnechny”住宅区庭院 Courtyard in the residential area “Solnechny”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Once the project has been designed and approved, plants have to be purchased. Each December Brusnika’s landscape architects compile a summary table of species to be planted out next May. Later, in the spring, normally in March, the landscape workshop professionals travel to European or Russian nurseries to choose plants. It takes about 2 minutes to pick one tree. This involves measuring the trunk in circumference at 1.3 metres above the root flare and mark the tree if it meets all the requirements. The specialists also check for the crown symmetry, and make sure there are no pests or diseases. These steps enable Brusnika to obtain only high quality adult trees. The company plants over 500 trees and 50 000 shrubs and perennials annually.
In order to continuously expand the range of plant species, Brusnika collaborates with Rosselkhoznadzor (The Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision) so that it can add to the existing list of plants allowed to be imported from European nurseries. Doing this work on a regular basis helps to avoid customs problems and transportation delays on the border, which may lead to plants’ state deterioration. As for local nurseries, the range of plants in their stock grows annually due to new suppliers, who comply with technological regulations of the company. Moreover, the landscape team cooperates with nurseries in order to propagate and cultivate new plant varieties: each year Brusnika’s projects comprise from 10 to 20 experimental species of trees. The cultivars that take root well are then added to the collection of tested plants. Another way of dealing with unique plants is to propagate these cultivars in local botanical gardens and subsequently utilise them in the company’s projects.
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Shishimskaya gorka”居住区的热带植物实验物种 Experimental species of tropical plants in the residential area “Shishimskaya gorka”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
▽俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Solnechny”住宅区准备种植的植物 Preparing plants for planting in the residential area “Solnechny”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
To reach the planting location, plants are transported from the nursery in flatbed trucks. Once delivered, they are examined with video and photo capture to record the plants state. If a plant is damaged, gardeners suggest ways of treatment. The plants that have been approved are then transferred to a temporary storehouse, where they are kept in compliance with the norms, which comprise regular watering, protecting the root system, ensuring sufficient distance between the trees, using safe non-heated material underneath and so forth. When the season starts, the plants are transported to the project site. They are first pruned and then prepared to be planted out by digging planting holes. These are filled with potting compost composed of natural ingredients and substitutes. This enables plants to take root and boosts their growth. Brusnika has developed a special composition to ensure the root system nutrition. By adding compost mix to the planting hole, the soil is prevented from firming due to the dynamic impact of pedestrians and vehicles, and the tree gets enough water and minerals. Automated irrigation systems are then placed around the plants.
▽俄罗斯秋明 “Novin”小区的自动灌溉系统 Automatic irrigation system in the quarter “Novin”, Tyumen, Russia
▽俄罗斯新西伯利亚“European riverfront”小区的树木根系保护设施 Protecting the root system of trees in the microdistrict “European riverfront”, Novosibirsk, Russia
Having completed the project, all greenery is monitored by Brusnika’s landscape workshop. The specialists control pruning and watering, gauge soil humidity, observe flowering and provide seasonal preparations. On the spot maintenance is carried out by the property management company, which acquires full responsibility in maintenance and care in three years time.
▽ 俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡“Shishimskaya gorka”居民区植物喷洒 Spraying plants in the residential area “Shishimskaya gorka”, Yekaterinburg, Russia
▽ 俄罗斯新西伯利亚 “European riverfront”小区的树木修剪 Tree pruning in the microdistrict “European riverfront”, Novosibirsk, Russia
▽ Brusnika已建成项目图集 Gallery of Brusnika’s project
设计公司：Brusnika in collaboration with Novascape, S&P Architektura Krajobrazu, Landmark architects.
Project Name: Creating first-class landscapes: an approach to public improvement
Design Firm: Brusnika in collaboration with Novascape, S&P Architektura Krajobrazu, Landmark architects.
Photos: Courtesy of Brusnika
Company website: https://ekaterinburg.brusnika.ru/company_eng/
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