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WES LandscapeArchitecture：科隆Westerwaldstrasse绿地及棕地生态振兴项目是一个成功的范例，它展示了景观设计在复杂的社会背景下应对气候变化和土壤污染挑战的可能性。项目区域长达两公里多，连接洪堡和格林伯格两个城区。如今它不仅为公众提供了极具吸引力的游戏及运动场所，还有方便使用的娱乐设施、道路和空间，以促进地区的社会交往。此外，该项目还增强了当地对极端天气的抵御能力，如高温或暴雨。一些气候条件的改善效果在项目竣工后已经开始显现，这将随着绿地空间的开发进一步得到强化。这一获奖项目由来自汉堡的WES LandschaftsArchitektur负责规划设计，业主是科隆市景观保护和绿地规划局。
WES LandscapeArchitecture: The ecological revitalisation of green spaces and brownfield sites along the city districts of Westerwaldstrasse in Cologne serves as a successful example of the possibilities of landscape architecture for tackling the challenges caused by climate change and soil pollution all while taking place in a complex social context. The more than two-kilometre-long project area connects the two districts of Humboldt and Gremberg. It now offers not only attractive areas for play and sport, but also accessible recreational facilities, paths and spaces to promote social interaction. Furthermore, the project reduces existing climate stresses such as heat or heavy rain. Some of the improved climatic conditions are already noticeable immediately following completion and will be further enhanced as green spaces are developed. The award-winning project was planned by WES LandschaftsArchitektur from Hamburg. The client was the City of Cologne under the direction of the Office for Landscape Conservation and Green Spaces.
现状情况 Initial situation
区域现状问题的典型特征表现为土壤高度板结、建筑密集、空气和噪音污染以及显著的社群隔离，还有90%到95%的地块堆满了类似垃圾填埋场的废弃物，已然使区域处于不利地位。由于绿地率较低，该地区在气候预测方面表示未来即将出现高于平均水平的热量。这些并不理想的现状条件无不限制着弱势地区的发展，所以规划上需要创造更多的绿色空间来提高人们的生活质量以及居民的社区意识，同时为应对未来的生态挑战做准备。Westerwaldstrasse生态振兴是“Strong Veedel – Strong Cologne”大地区振兴计划的一部分，它得到了欧洲地区开发基金（ERDF）的大力支持。
“Strong Veedel – Strong Cologne”振兴计划旨在：互相帮助、团结一致、塑造未来，在此计划的框架指引下，科隆11个社会空间的生活条件正在逐步改善，惠及20多万居民。除了通过美化户外区域和重新设计儿童游乐场等措施来改善居住空间之外，还有其他一些面向儿童青少年、青年、亲子群体的可利用项目，以此提升他们的社会、文化和健康发展前景，同时引导大家参与并融入社交空间。
Typical features in the planning area between Humboldt, Gremberg and Kalk were a high degree of soil sealing, densely packed buildings, air and noise pollution and pronounced social segregation. Furthermore, 90 to 95 percent of the areas were already disadvantaged owing to being filled with landfill-like waste. Due to the low proportion of green spaces, climate forecasts assumed that above-average heat levels in this location in future were imminent. These are not good conditions for a less privileged area of Cologne. As a result, it required planning which created more green spaces and increased quality of life as well as residents’ sense of community – while at the same time tackling the ecological challenges of the future. The “Ecological Revitalisation of Westerwaldstrasse” initiative was part of the “Strong Veedel – Strong Cologne” programme and was supported with extensive funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
With its “Strong Veedel – Strong Cologne: Helping out, sticking together, shaping the future” programme, the city of Cologne is improving living conditions in eleven social spaces in Cologne, where more than 200,000 people reside. This is not just about improving residential spaces through measures such as beautifying outdoor areas and redesigning children’s playgrounds. “Strong Veedel – Strong Cologne” also contains a number of offerings which children, young people and families can make use of to improve their social, cultural and health prospects – while at the same time learning to be involved in their social space.
规划方针 Planning approach
WES LandschaftsArchitektur的规划师们将Westerwaldstrasse沿线划分为三个区域，分别是：Kannebäckersiedlung附近的绿地、Festwiese周边的中央绿地以及Lenzwiese的全新运动区和游乐区，它们共同形成一条自西向东的中轴绿带，轴线上基本没有机动车通行。现在，连续的绿道将建筑密集的中心区与科隆两大绿区之一的“外绿带（Äußerer Grüngürtel）”联系起来。绿轴的打造具有重要的生态意义：重新种植了300多棵树木、升级改造荒地（即未开发利用的裸地）、新开辟了果园以及对鸟类和昆虫友好的营养牧场，在中和空气及噪音污染的同时，也极大地改善了当地的生物多样性和小气候。
The planners from WES LandschaftsArchitektur divided the area along Westerwaldstrasse as a central axis running from west to east, which is largely free from motorised traffic, into three areas: The green space of Kannebäckersiedlung near the district, the central green space around Festwiese and the new sport and play areas in Lenzwiese. The now continuous greenway establishes connections from the densely built-up centre of the district to the Äußerer Grüngürtel (Outer Green Belt), one of Cologne’s two large green zones. No less important is the connection of Gremberger Strasse to the neighbouring districts. The ecological significance of the initiative is enormous: The replanting of more than 300 trees, the upgrade to the ruderal areas (that is, unused bare soil areas), newly created orchards and nutrient pastures for birds and insects counteract air and noise pollution while significantly improving the local biodiversity and microclimate.
The revitalisation of Westerwaldstrasse has resulted in the creation of a large, almost car-free, continuous green space measuring more than six hectares featuring more than three kilometres of paths. While analysing the existing features, the districts were analysed to assess their complexity, the interaction of existing facilities and institutions, the visual relationships and landmarks, identifiable disturbances, up to and including previously discovered beaten paths. In doing so, the planners also used the beaten paths used by people to cross the area as a guide. Existing structures such as hills and a knoll overlooking the cathedral were also preserved. Early public participation through tours, street parties and workshops ensured public confidence and participation in this cooperative planning process. It was not possible to implement every idea, but they were assessed and discussed. Success laid in ensuring a high degree of acceptance for the plan.
▽项目平面图 Project plan
交流与娱乐- Kannebäckersiedlung: Communication and recreation
In this western residential area of the green corridor, things should be a little quieter. It is replete with plenty of seating areas, meadows and fruit trees. These totally barrier-free areas and the new district square promote interaction among residents – a further significant improvement over the old situation. New path connections attract car-free mobility to the district. Where the path used to end in a car park, it is now possible to walk through the green spaces to the centre of Veedel with no barriers. Here, paths and easily maintainable perennial and grass plants enclose a small square with grassy areas. With its benches, this square also serves as a meeting point for the district. Thanks to its water-bound covering and the surrounding paved path, it can be used for small events or as a boules court.
休闲与游赏- Section of the former Festwiese: Recreation and play
The former Festweise is the central green space of the entire project area – a district park with a wide range of sports, games and recreational activities, all in one place with no separation of spaces. However, in the past, this area used to be filled with old contaminated waste deposits down to a depth of eight metres. This potential risk had to be assessed in cooperation with the Office for the Environment and Consumer Protection, and measures for its planned use as a children’s playground, park and leisure site had to be drawn up. Where necessary, soil was replaced and anti-digging measures were introduced. All spaces were covered with uncontaminated topsoil. Now, new paths, secured with water-bound path coverings, connect Festwiese to the surrounding buildings.
The newly created children’s play area doesn’t just offer lots of fun owing to the range of equipment (pole forest, swings, climbing frame, treadmill, slide), but also excellent movement and coordination training for children. With its four baskets at different heights (two at a height of 3.05 metres suitable for tournaments and two at 2.30 metres suitable for children) and paved with tarmac, the streetball court south of the children’s playground offers sporting opportunities for all generations.
场地入口处还开辟了一片 “食用水果和装饰性水果园”，果园中栽植有 50 棵树，树种依据德国环境和自然保护联合会为北莱茵-威斯特伐利亚州（North Rhine-Westphalia）果园制定的水果推荐品类清单而确定。另一方面，还有 20 多棵枫树、橡树等单独成景或组合成林，起到画龙点睛的作用，提升场地吸引力。此外，还打造了约 2,500 平方米的草甸景观，种植物种多样的草本植物及乡土植物，为昆虫们带来了更多的栖息地和觅食机会。
A “fruit and decorative fruit meadow” was created in the entrance areas. The composition of the species and varieties of the 50 trees was based on the German Federation for the Environment and Nature Conservation’s fruit variety recommendation for orchards in North Rhine-Westphalia. On the other hand, more than 20 solitary trees, such as maple or oak, either as individual trees or in groups, provide accents and attract eyes. Around 2,500 m² of species-rich meadow and herb seeds with regional seeds were planted to create additional habitats and feeding opportunities for insects.
游戏和运动- Section of the former Brache An der Lenzwiese: Play and sport
An der Lenzwiese地块的限制条件主要表现为：一个封闭的运动场、一个缺乏吸引力的操场以及一片不可利用的棕地，区域内还堆放着污染废弃物，因此该场地的更新改造采用了与Festwiese相同的标准。WES在此创建了一个以体育锻炼为核心的大型连续绿地，高地上修建了运动场、50 米短跑跑道、障碍赛道和新操场。场地各个部分相互融合，为附近健身俱乐部的成员提供户外锻炼机会。
The sad situation in An der Lenzwiese was characterised by a closed sports field, a less attractive playground as well as unusable brownfield land. This area also had old contaminated waste deposited there, which is why the same criteria as those used for Festweise were observed. WES created a large, continuous green space with a focus on sports and exercise. An exercise course, a 50 m sprint track, an obstacle course and a newly built playground on a plateau were created. A particularly attractive feature is the way in which the individual parts of the site merge into one another – an exercise opportunity for members of the neighbouring sports club.
A circular arena with a diameter of 100 metres was created on the threshing floor of the former sports field, which is bordered by pillar-like tree plantings. The circular path, developed as a jogging trail with a length of 300 metres, serves as a walking path or an endurance track. This independent space elevated on the south side can be used for a variety of leisure activities. The east side of the circular arena was designed as a grassy area, with two gates standing 40 m from one another. Seating furniture for spectators and passers-by arranged on the site and at the edge completes the picture of an attractive and contemporary sports area. It was almost impossible to change the brownfield land’s topography. In particular, it was almost impossible to modify the existing elements there due to the old contaminated waste deposits. As a result, the planners used the rises in the existing terrain as a topography to create the 600-m-long bike trail and supplemented it with a large number of installations to make riding along it even more fun.
路径与广场- Main axis of Westerwaldstrasse: Paths and squares
The main axis forms the new connection between the city centre greenway on the right side of the Rhine and the green belt outside of Cologne. Stretching across almost two kilometres, it combines linear green spaces with square-like expanses and links the Kannebäckersiedlung, Festwiese and Lenzwiese greenways together. In addition to the functional, creative aspects and the benefit for leisure activities and visit quality, the plants, primarily “future trees”, provide a clearly identifiable ecological enhancement and improvement to the microclimate. When selecting the composition of species and varieties, special preference was afforded to trees which studies have shown to be particularly climate-resilient.
结论：从郊区到城市绿洲 Conclusion: From outskirts to urban oasis
该项目获得了德国景观建筑师协会 (BDLA) 的奖项认证，评委会对“步行和自行车区域”的绿色设计予以了高度肯定，以绿轴的形式将街道与面状空间相联系，城区的生态条件在不断改善，区域吸引力也正日益加深。这是对气候变化、土壤污染和社会隔离所带来的挑战的一种有力回应。换句话说：“这是一个既减少环境污染又提高生活质量的典范项目，且两者都达到了相当高的水平。”
Westerwaldstrasse in Cologne presented a desolate picture at the beginning of the project. Lots of soil sealing, little greenery, closed sports areas and playgrounds and lots of old contaminated waste deposits. The only prospect for the future was even more social segregation. The result of the “Revitalising Westerwalsstrasse” initiative is a continuous and highly attractive eight-hectare green space with a wide range of activities, from park benches on doorsteps to the arena in Lenzwiese. The overarching goals such as climate adaptation, ecological upgrades, growing and expanding barrier-free green spaces close to the district and networking footpaths and cycle paths were also achieved.
The Association of German Landscape Architects (BDLA) has already awarded the project with the “nrw.landschaftsarchitektur.preis 2022”. The jury praised the green “pedestrian and cycling area, which connects the streets and spaces together in the form of a green axis. Furthermore, the ecological conditions of the urban area are also improving. The attractiveness of the district is increasing. The concept addresses the challenges posed by climate change, soil contamination and social segregation.” In other words: An exemplary project which reduces environmental contamination and increases quality of life – and both to a considerable degree.
设计团队：Wiebke Stöhr, Maria Aldea, Klaus Haase, Sven Schatz, Frank Helmke, Markus Loh und Guido Bauer（外部场地经理）
图片来源：Guido Erbring / 平面图：WES Landscape Architecture
Project Name: Ecological revitalization of Westerwaldstraße, Cologne, Germany
Completion Year: 2021
Scale: 112,000 m²
Project Location: Cologne, Germany
Landscape Architecture Firm: WES LandscapeArchitecture
Contact e-mail: email@example.com
Lead Architects: Claus Rödding
Design Team: Wiebke Stöhr, Maria Aldea, Klaus Haase, Sven Schatz, Frank Helmke, Markus Loh und Guido Bauer (external site manager)
Clients: Town of Cologne, Germany
Photo Credits: Pictures: Guido Erbring / Plans: WES Landscape Architecture
Photographer’s Website: www.guidoerbring.com
更多 Read more about：WES LandscapeArchitecture