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黑白之间景观:自然生态的破坏,传统文化的流失,彼此情感的淡漠…难道这些都是伴随城市发展无可避免的代价?答案是否定的。在这样的思考下,在空间重构主题下,我们认为:空间重构不应仅仅是物理空间本身重构。更高更远层面的空间重构应是关乎自然空间关乎情感空间的重构。

项目位于“峡口明珠”之称的湖北省宜昌市。场地本身没有更多有效资源。仅有一条荒芜贫瘠的河谷(长500米宽60米)。我们发力于此。从自然恢复角度对河谷空间进行修复和重塑,用景观元素的构建将情感进行承载和延续。

BW-landscape PLANNING AND DESIGN:The destruction of natural ecosystem. The disintegration of traditional way of life. Apathy and disengagement among people. Those are supposed to be the costs of urban development. But are they really inevitable?We certainly say No!We believe spatial reconstruction is not just about physical space. It is more about natural space and emotional space.

Our project is located at the edge of Yichang, a city in Hubei Province known as “the pearl of the Gorge”. The locale was pristine but without much of effective resources, except for a barren river valley, which runs 500 meters long and averages 60 meters wide.That is where we launched our initiative. With an undertaking for natural restoration and emotional reconstruction, we set out to repair and reshape the entirety of valley space, using various landscape elements to convey and extend human emotions.

 

▼恢复河谷生态,重构自然与感情 Restoration of valley ecology, Reconstruction Nature and Emotion 


自然空间的重构—山林溪谷

Reconstruction of natural space: hills, woods, creek and valley

 

▼河谷现场,河谷两岸近20米高差 At the scene of the valley,There is a height difference of nearly 20 meters between the two sides of the river valley

▼现场面临着巨大的护坡绿化挑战,以及河谷的生态恢复等问题 The site is faced with huge challenges of slope protection and greening, as well as ecological restoration of the valley

▼项目平面图,提取河谷原有河道线索进行景观规划和功能布置 Master plan, The original river course was surveyed for landscape planning and functional layout

 

项目从绿化护坡,地形材料,生态重塑三个方面讲述设计过程。

生态修复最困难的是如何将河谷两岸近20米高差的护坡绿色化。我们最终选择大面积采用加筋土挡墙的做法(结构原型最早出现于5000年前良渚文化早中期,以草裹泥固土筑坝挡水)。施工期间预先在加筋土种植袋内混合大量草种和花种。仅20天仅靠雨水淋灌,护坡绿化覆盖就达到80%。植被恢复非常高效。

The hardest part of natural restoration is the greening of the revetment on both sides of the valley, which climbs almost 20 meters in elevation. Our eventual choice is retaining walls built with reinforced earth. (The prototype of this structure dates back to the early period the Liangzhu culture more than 5000 years ago, when water bank was built with grass-reinforced mud blocks to protect arable earth.)We pre-blended the reinforced earth with large amount of grass seeds and flower seeds before filling it into planting bags. As the result, the green coverage of revetment reached 80% within 20 days merely on natural raining irrigation. This proved to be a highly efficient way of vegetation restoration.

 

▼加筋土挡墙施工过程记录,护坡采用加筋土挡墙的做法,加筋土种植袋内混合大量草种和花种 We pre-blended the reinforced earth with large amount of grass seeds and flower seeds before filling it into planting bags

▼绿化护坡,场地60天植被覆盖情况 Revetment greening

 

提取河谷原有河道线索进行景观规划,梳理交通流线及活动场地,使之最大化贴合原有地貌,最大限度减少破坏。在材料的取用上,所有材料尽量就地取材。包括施工过程尽量采集储蓄原有表皮土壤及废弃陶片木屑以循环再利用。

We followed the inherent river course as the central thread for landscape planning, placing traffic lines and activity grounds accordingly.The idea is to maximize the integration between construction and original landform, as well as to minimize the damage to the natural environment. We did our best to collect building materials off the land. We extracted and stored local topsoil, and recycled pottery shards and wood chips.

 

▼地形材料,且后期驳岸、置石及汀步等都取材于现场弃石 Landform and materials ,During the end-stage, bulkhead, rock layout and stepping stones were all supplied with local derelict stones

 

设计尽量保留现场有效植物;搭配针叶和常绿阔叶形成混交林;长远考虑快慢生植物未来成林的效果。选用更多单位叶面积吸附颗粒物更强的植物使之更有效降低PM2.5以净化空气。经测算当河谷绿化覆盖绿从原30%增加到95%,未来场地PM2.5含量将减少40%左右,夏季平均温度降降低2—3℃。

Our design put an emphasis on preservation of local effective plants. Afforestation took the form of coniferous-evergreen broadleaf mingled forest, for the long-term benefit of balancing fast growing and slow growing plants.The choices of plants favored those of higher unit leaf-area capacity for aerial particle absorption, in order to lower PM 2.5 levels and improve air quality.According to our estimation, the green coverage ratio of the valley improved from the original 30% to 95%, the future PM 2.5 levels would be reduced by about 40%, and the average summertime temperature lowered by 2-3℃.

 

▼生态重塑,设计也充分考虑水岸和土壤的微动植物体系构建 Ecosystem reconstruction, Regarding the waterfront and soil, reconstruction of micro-fauna and flora are also taken into sufficient consideration

 

情感空间的重构—离空之桥

Reconstruction of emotional space: the fly-away bridge

根据项目特性,两个地块分隔,联系两岸,需要桥。而中西方文化里“桥”都不单是跨越障碍到达两地的功能构筑。“桥”也是人与人,与动物,与自然的沟通,互动、交融的象征。国人的传统择居理念:栖之美好就是居而邻水。有水应有桥,有你才有家。桥又是情感“空间”的维系。

A bridge is a connection, and also a conception.In both Western and Chinese cultures, the idea of a “bridge” is not confined to the functional structure that connects two places over obstacles. A bridge is also a symbol of communication, of interaction and harmony between human themselves, between human and creatures, human and nature.In traditional Chinese ideals, the finest location of residence is to “make neighbor with water”. Bridge arises over water, and home takes roots over connection. In a sense, bridges are perfect links and extensions of emotional spaces.

 

▼离空之桥手绘设计图 The fly-away bridge Hand drawing

▼离空之桥施工过程记录 Record of construction process of covered bridge

 

离空之桥的设计采用多维“Z”字型。以突破场地横向、纵向限制,构建出一组多层次、多维度、多空间体验的路径。由此,左右,上下,你我,人类和自然都能更好“连接”在一起。借由卞之琳的一首诗:你站在桥上看风景,看风景的人在桥下看你。自然装饰了你的生活,你装饰了别人的梦。

The fly-away bridge boasts a multi-dimensional Z-shaped design that transcends the lateral and longitudinal limits of the ground, forming a set of paths submerged in multi-level, multi-dimensional and multi-spatial experiences.Thus every direction, everyone and everything artificial and natural are connected in harmony.

 

▼离空之桥,离地之上,穿梭于林空之间,谓之“离空” The fly-away bridge ,Built upon away places, flying over wooded spaces, that is the imagery of “fly-away”

▼夜幕下的离桥 Covered Bridges in the night ▼离桥人行尺度 Off-bridge pedestrian scale

▼离桥栏杆细节 Covered railing details

 

项目通过对115位访客进行问卷调查,86%的参与者对整体河谷景观的评价为“满意”或“非常满意”,特别是对离空之桥满意度达到了97%。由此可见,离空之桥的构建,带给了人们更多的趣味性和参与感。人与人的交流互动,人与自然的交融共生在此处得到了最好的诠释。

In an opinion poll of 115 visitors,86% of the participants rated the valley landscape scenery as “satisfactory” or “very satisfactory”, especially the fly-away bridge, which earned a satisfactory rating of 97%.

 


结语 Conclusion

项目中,我们从自然空间重构层面打造山林溪谷,从情感空间重构层面打造离空之桥。从而,完善了人类重塑自然,自然反哺人类的闭环空间结构,人在这个闭环空间又传递沟通着情感。进而生态和情感得以重构。在此我们呼吁:从自然生态及人类情感角度来思考解读并落地呈现的景观设计,才是我们所有有社会责任感的设计师应当秉持的信念。黑白之间也将延续这样的设计理念,跟我们的客户和同仁一起打造更多更好的设计作品。

We gathered that the fly-away bridge arouses immense delight and sense of participation. It is the best interpretation of communication among people, and harmonious coexistence between human and nature.The essence of our project is a twofold reconstruction: on the natural layer the reconstruction of hills, woods, creek and valley, and on the emotional layer the reconstruction of connection with the fly-away bridge.By “connection” we are not merely aiming at people themselves. It is a closed-loop space between human and nature: human reshapes nature; nature replenishes human. Within this space, people pass around and communicate their emotions.

 

 

项目名称: 招商宜昌依云水岸景观设计(河谷篇)
完成年份: 2019年
项目面积:22497㎡
项目地点: 湖北省宜昌市
景观设计:成都黑白之间景观规划设计有限公司
联系邮箱: 646817725@qq.com
客户/开发商:招商蛇口
摄影: 河狸景观摄影

Project Name: Zhaoshang Yichang Evian town landscape design(river valley part)
Year of completion: 2019
Project Area: 22497㎡
Project Location: Yichang City, Hubei Province
Landscape Design: BW-landscape PLANNING AND DESIGN
Email: 646817725@qq.com
Client / Developer: CMSK
Photographer: Holi

 

 

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