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ZSD：Shaoxing Manyuan Garden is located in the southeast of Shaoxing, adjacent to the famous Kuaiji Mountain to the south. Kuaiji Mountain was once a landmark of Chinese culture in history. The ancient legend of the great Yu governing water happened here. Scholars from the Wei and Jin dynasties gathered here. Wang Xizhi and Xie Lingyun lived, traveled, and created literature in the Yexi River in KuiJi Mountain, creating the most outstanding works and portraits of Chinese intellectuals. In Ming Dynasty, Wang Yangming lived in seclusion here to study philosophy. The bridges and flowing water in the urban area of Shaoxing are the gentle and honest side of the ancient Yue culture, while the Kuaiji Mountain is the symbol of Shaoxing’s vigor.
The lush Kuaiji Mountain and the statue of Dayu can be seen a few kilometers away from the site. The sight control of the scenic area brings strict building height restrictions. The surrounding built-up environment is all shaded in greenery, coexisting with the ancient and peaceful Kuaiji Mountain. The site is adjacent to HuanJiang Road in the east, Shengshan Road in the north, and a meter-wide green belt on the south side of the Shaoxing Second Ring Road. On the east and north sides of the road, there exist lush long-planted camphor trees on both sides, giving the space an excellent microscopic environment.
▼勘地 The current situation
▼场地区位 Site location
Manyuan Garden covers an area of 201.4 acres and has a floor area ratio of 1.15. The products are three types: townhouses, villas, and bungalows. From the earliest stage of the project, the landscape team has been involved in planning and space optimization work to form an integrated effect of architecture and landscape, blending into the natural and cultural connotation of Kuaiji Mountain.
▼大区整体设计理念 Overall design concept
In the end, a landscape planning structure of “2 gardens, 9 themes, and 12 workshops” is formed, which gives residents a sense of belonging and a clear spatial orientation through a proper scale of the neighborhood. The design, connecting the two entrances on the east side and the north side, forms an “L”-shaped main public landscape life axis to build a continuous picture like a long scroll in a linear space. At the same time, the design uses the space relationship to form nine residential nodes, creating and a rich environment of tour and communication functions.
The project is named after the “garden”, which reflects the value of the landscape and the expectations. How to build a contemporary garden that not only inherits the original tranquil and cultural atmosphere of the site but also fits the contemporary aesthetic and lifestyle?
Qi Biaojia of the Ming Dynasty once said in “Yuezhong Garden Pavilion”: “The water in Yue is nothing more than mountains, the mountains in Yue are nothing more than water, and the mountains and rivers in Yue are nothing more than gardens.” Mountains, waters, forests, and springs have been the ideal habitats for the Chinese since ancient times. “The space of planes or hills can be small and big”. Gardens are an important carrier to bring the landscape into daily life. This time, we establish “bring landscapes into the garden, revivals ancient quality again” as the intention of landscape gardening.
推演——当下与往古对勘 Deduction – Present and the Past
Tong Jun brilliantly summed up Chinese gardens as “three-dimensional Chinese paintings.” Ancient literati often followed the principles of painting for gardening. Almost important historical gardeners were proficient in painting, and gardens have always been regarded as a painting and artistic conceptual space that transcends the ordinary.
▼文征明 ·《兰亭雅集图》 Wen Zhengming · “Orchid Pavillion Gathering”
After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the tradition of gathering in gardens has been passed down from generation to generation among literati. Although most of the gardens have been lost, fortunately, the artistic drawings of the past dynasties retain our elegant memories. The gathering was once a traditional spiritual lifestyle. Nowadays, it can be understood as a kind of high-quality communication, in which people correspond to people, and people correspond to nature.
▼李公麟 · 《西园雅集图》 Li Gonglin · “Xiyuan Garden Gathering”
基地推敲 Site Scrutiny
The demonstration area is located at the eastern beginning of the “L”-shaped landscape main axis. It is the main entrance garden of the entire project. It belongs to the “outer garden” and will be shared by all owners and foreign consumers in the future. The two-story building on the north side is temporarily used as a sales venue and will be used as a business space to provide living services for the area after delivery. Due to the different use modes in the short and long term, the site naturally forms two moving lines. During the sales period, the two moving lines are connected to form an experiencing loop and an amusement loop. After delivery, it is divided into the internal moving lines to meet the needs for owner’s to come home and an external moving lines for maintenance.
▼示范区平面图 Demonstration area plan
▼示范区动线 Circulation design
In the previous architectural master plan, the demonstration area is a rectangle, and the north side is a two-story community business building. The main entrance structure of the entire project is located in the middle of the south side of the rectangular land and protrudes outside the fence. It has a very rigid shape with a simple spatial relationship. The space is wide open and the water surface is on people’s first sight. We optimized and adjusted the master plan, moved the main entrance to the south and retreated it, canceled the two townhouses on the south side, added space outside the rectangular main garden, and extended the display wall in both directions from north to south, Increasing the length from 67 meters to 85 meters.
▼空间尺寸 Spatial size
The main courtyard is 48 meters wide and 25 meters deep. It is inspired by the ratio of the core area of the historic site of Shenyuan, which is a famous Song Dynasty garden in Shaoxing, and the Suzhou Master of the Nets Garden. We hope to create a big effect on the details.
理山脉顺水源 Manage the mountains and rivers
“Stacking mountains and managing water” is the first step in traditional garden design. Mountains are precious and the source of water is priceless. The flow of air is the vital principle of Chinese garden aesthetics. The Manyuan garden is built on flat grading. How to bring the mountains and water into the garden? How to create changes in detail?
▼竖向分析 Vertical analysis
Through the elevation design, we raised the general elevation of the garden by 30 cm and further increased by 30 cm at the entrance. The 60 centimeters height difference was used to inadvertently form the source and flow direction of the water body of the entire garden. The double drops and meandering route extend the length of the experiencing path. The water finally merges into the central flat pool. The trend of the mountain range is spread along the west and south walls, and the Kuaiji Mountain outside the garden is used to form a background image of mountains and forests in the garden.
构筑物布局 Structure layout
After the landscape pattern is mostly established, the next step is to rationally layout important structures in the space by combining functional flow lines and sightlines. On the L-shape, we arranged four structures, namely the entrance flower hall, the east side veranda, the pond and the water pavilion, and the inner garden cabin. The scales are different in size but well balanced. They can be wide, exquisite, or elevated. Visitors can pass or stay to view the scene or become part of the scene. The spaces intersperse and blends with the mountains, forests, water, flowers, trees, and figures to form a multi-space feeling.
To obtain a more integrated effect, the architecture and interior design are both our design scope.
▼构筑物/墙体分析 Structures analysis
空间递进转化 Space progressive transformation
The site is organized into four sequential spaces. The architecture, interior, and landscape are connected in series with the gardening technique of a landscape narrative.
▼景观设计过程动图 Landscape design process animation
第一进：退让借景 望之森然 The first space: retreat and borrow the scenery to see the forest
The front field takes the Kuaiji Mountain as a distant view. Depending on the original property line, open welcoming space is reserved by the entrance flower hall and scenery wall. The camphor trees on the east side of Huanjiang Road naturally form the foreground. The design set up the parking area on the north side of the frontcourt, and guide visitors along the path to look towards Kuaiji Mountain at the end of the line of sight. The entrance flower hall with a hip-and-gable roof from Song Dynasty is 7.34m high. The cornice is 18.4 meters long and 12 meters wide. It forms a natural and elegant Chinese scroll with the bush balls and black pine at the side in front of a horizontal wall.
第二进：曲水流觞 松间问泉 The second Space: Meandering flow, Find the stream under the pine
The reception flower hall under the hip-and-gable roof is drawn by the sightline of the depressed cornice and grille frame. Excessive structural redundancy is eliminated in the interior, forming an unobstructed open space. The wood grain aluminum alloy gusset ceiling brings a warm and elegant feeling. The 30 centimeters height difference, and the water axis device “winding stream” located in the center of the flower hall, divide the 154 square meters space into two parts: staying and passing.
“A Winding Steam Party”, first was formed after the literati of the Eastern Jin Dynasty returned to the mountains and forests, becoming the index of the binary space. we simulate the winding waterways on the rock installations to have a poetic feeling of drinking from the ancient literati. The invisible water axis is regarded as the starting water source of the entire project, extending outside the doorway, connecting the high and low dynamic and static mountain spring waterfalls in series. The mountain stream flows down, accompanied by the sound of the song ” Find the Stream under the Pine “.
第三进：通而不畅 辗转蓄势 The third Space: connected but not smooth, winding to gain momentum
Along the west side of the park, there is a path leading to the inner garden cabin. By creating a tortuous folding line, we create a garden experience full of fun even though the road is nearly 100 meters long.
Along the two sides of the road, with large trees and small shrub filling the background space, the design forms a waterfront landscape of continuous mountains and winding riverbanks. Spring’s Red plums, summer’s apricot trees, tallow trees, saplings, fall’s red maple, green maple, Nandina domestica, cypress and other flowers and trees, bring a four-season garden, blooming into the poetic vitality of nature. Two bridges and one pavilion are set up at different nodes. A small bridge is used to cross the water, and a water pavilion for rest and relax jointly continues the elegant environment of the literati garden. Mountains, rocks, flowers, trees, and structures are intertwined and blended to create the interaction of barriers, leaks, and borrowed scenes.
第四进：一境天开 展卷沉吟 The fourth space: open the space with the sky and open the scroll of the painting
Going around the cabin, or following the curved veranda outside the Flower Hall, visitors can enter the open-air pool platform on the east side, which is the waterfront junction area with strong contrast in the scale of the previous entry space. The flower and tree path facing the cabin is placed in front of the waterfront. The panoramic composition is layered with a three-dimensional picture scroll with Kuaiji Mountain as the distant view and Flower Hall Cabin as the middle view. The design constructs a mirrored sky-open central flat pool to make the 8 meters water distance between the two sides. The sky appears the same color, and the horizontal oblique shadow is on the water surface, creating a sense of freedom from the small to the big and an infinite view. Sitting on the bank talking and chatting, the visitors’ mood is peaceful. The pool naturally separates the return flow of future owners from external use and visually borrows from each other.
材料节点 Material node
Manyuan garden draws on traditional gardens and architecture in terms of artistic conception and form and adopts a completely modern construction language in terms of materials and craftsmanship. The Caesar Gray stonewalls and dark metal tile roof set the tone of an overall calm atmosphere. The wood grain metal ceiling, metal grille, and railing are further used to outline the process details. Montenegro is used for gardening and stacked hills to integrate with the overall atmosphere.
During the construction process, we experienced many mock-up meetings and on-site adjustments to obtain the best results.
▼门头 图纸 Door head drawings
▼水榭 图纸 Waterside pavilion drawings
▼柴扉与“曲水流觞”水轴 图纸 Cabin and “A Winding Stream Party” water axis drawings
▼栏杆 图纸 Railing drawings
Chinese traditional gardens represent the Eastern style of “ideal residence”. On the one hand, it is a cherish yearning for nature, and on the other hand, it is a love of life. Except for the stylized expression, the concepts inside are not changed with the change of times. Shaoxing Manyuan Garden is another gardening attempt by ZSD, learning from traditions and building contemporary gardens.
项目名称：大家 · 湛景满园
Project Name: Master · Zhanjing Manyuan Garden
Project Type: Low-density residential
Project Owner: Shaoxing Yulin Real Estate Co., Ltd.
Project Location: Shaoxing, Zhejiang
Design/Completion: August 2019/May 2020
Project Area: 134,000 square meters
Demonstration Area: 3200 square meters
Landscape Design: ZSD
Design Guide: Yuan Xiaoyu
Landscape Team: Yu Yujun, Wang Licheng, Tou Longfei, Huang Zhichao, Wu Ting, Wang Anyuan, He Jiabin, Jiang Yao, Cheng Yajing, Lin Xiaoye
Project Photography: Xue Yutao
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