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LANDPROCESS :曼谷正在下沉,这座拥有2000万人口的城市,正以每年超过1厘米的速度下沉,最快可能在2030年低于海平面。这座泰国首都横跨湄南河三角洲,曾因其发达的运河脉络而被称为东方威尼斯。曾经大量的农业用地吸收了季节性洪水和季风降雨;如今,由于爆炸性的发展,许多水道已经被水泥填满。农田被城市的发展铺成了道路,挤满了建筑。作为水之城,曼谷不再是多孔的景观,只有极少的绿地和过度的建设。城市景观中缺乏渗透性表面,由于水没有地方可以渗透,有时甚至只下了30分钟的雨,曼谷就会被洪水侵袭。

LANDPROCESS :Bangkok is sinking.Spilling out across the delta of the Chao Phraya River, the Thai capital was once known as the Venice of the East for its network of canals. Agricultural land once absorbed seasonal flooding and cycles of monsoon rain;Today, thanks to explosive development, many of those waterways have been filled with cement. As the city of water, Bangkok is no longer the porous landscape: there is minimal green space and excessive construction.The lack of permeable surface in the urban landscape compounds these issues. With nowhere for water to go, Bangkok has become notorious for frequent, destructive floods, sometimes after as little as 30 minutes of rain. The reality is that this city of 20 million people, built on shifting river mud, is sinking at the rate of more than one centimeter a year and could be below sea level as soon as 2030.

 

▼朱拉隆功世纪公园鸟瞰图 An aerial view of Chulalongkorn Centenary Park

 

其中一个较大的反洪水项目就是朱拉隆功世纪公园(Chulalongkorn Centenary Park ),这个占地11英亩的绿地可容纳多达一百万加仑的雨水。正如TED所指出的那样,位于曼谷的景观设计公司Landprocess设计了该公园,以解决周边社区的洪水问题。

One of the larger anti-flooding projects is Chulalongkorn University Centenary Park, an 11-acre green space that can hold up to a million gallons of rainwater. As TED notes, Bangkok-based landscape architecture firm Landprocess designed the park to address flooding in its surrounding neighborhoods.

 

 

根据西门子绿色城市指数(人均绿地),曼谷每人只有3.3平方米的绿地(相比之下,马尼拉有5;巴黎11;上海13.5;纽约市23.1;伦敦27;新加坡66)。而CU Park(Chulalongkorn Centenary Park )公园于2017年3月开放,在曼谷市中心附近的朱拉隆功大学校园内。占地11英亩(或44,415平方米),土地价值估值为7亿美元,在曼谷长大的Landprocess创始人Kotchakorn Voraakhom 领导了该项目的设计计划。

According to Siemens Green City Index, Bangkok has just 3.3 square meters of green space per person (by contrast, Manila has 5; Paris, 11; Shanghai, 13.5; New York City, 23.1; London, 27; Singapore, 66).The Cu park was opened in March 2017 in the Chulalongkorn University campus near Bangkok’s downtown. Covering 11 acres (44,415 square meters), the land is valued at us $ 700 million. Kotchakkorn voraakhom, founder of Landprocess, who grew up in Bangkok led the design plan of the project.

 

 

Kotchakorn Voraakhom亲眼目睹她的城市变成了密集的混凝土丛林。“我年轻的时候,城里有稻田和运河,”她回忆道:“我能听到从我在曼谷市中心的房子里传来的船只的声音。现在,所有这些田地和运河都被混凝土堵塞,被高楼所覆盖。所有的建筑和混凝土都成为排水的障碍,所以城市被洪水淹没。”

Kotchakorn Voraakhom watched firsthand as her city became a dense concrete jungle. “When I was young, there were rice fields and canals in the city,” she remembers. “I could hear boats from my house in central Bangkok. Now, all those fields and canals have been stopped with concrete and covered by highrises. All of the buildings and concrete become obstacles for water to drain, so the city floods.”

 

上图: CU公园的步行街从公园的两边延伸出来,融入相邻的城市街区。下图: 这些路径受到雨树根部系统的启发。

 

在设计这个公园时,Voraakhom的灵感主要来自两方面:一是雨树,二是猴子的脸颊。泰国最古老的高等教育机构朱拉隆功大学(Chulalongkorn University)委托这座大学来庆祝其100岁生日。因此,当沃拉康开始她的初步设计时,她转向了学校的标志:雨树。Voraakhom说:“它有一个非常重要的、影响深远的根系,枝干伸展过度,为周围环境创造了荫蔽和生态。这个公园是为社会创造这棵大雨树的隐喻。我们希望这种绿色基础设施像树根一样扩展到城市。”

Top: CU Park’s pedestrian pathways emerge from either side of the park and meld into the adjacent city blocks. Bottom: The pathways were inspired by the root system of the rain tree.
In designing the park, Voraakhom had two major inspirations: the rain tree and a monkey’s cheeks. Chulalongkorn University, the oldest institution of higher education in Thailand, commissioned the space to celebrate its 100th birthday. So when Voraakhom began her preliminary designs, she turned to the university’s symbol: the rain tree. “It has a very significant, far-reaching root system, and the branches overreach and create shade and ecology for its surroundings,” Voraakhom says. “This park is a metaphor for creating this big rain tree for society. We want this green infrastructure to expand like a root of a tree into the city.”

 

 

 

为了模仿树的枝干和吸水根,Voraakhom在与公园垂直的交通繁忙的道路上添加了绿色的道路,她把道路从12米扩大到30米,但实际上减少了汽车车道,取而代之的是自行车道和合适的人行道——这在曼谷是闻所未闻的。(事实上,她认为公园是曼谷的主要道路第一次将交通车道换成步行道。)行人和骑自行车的人现在纷纷涌向公园两侧绿树成荫的林荫道。

这些道路包括自行车道和宽阔的人行道,让公众可以轻松步行前往公园。

To mimic the tree’s expansive branches and water-absorbing roots, Voraakhom added green pathways along the heavily trafficked road that runs perpendicular to the park. She enlarged the road from 12 meters to 30 meters, but actually reduced car lanes and replaced them with bike paths and proper walkways – unheard of in Bangkok. (In fact, she believes her park is the very first time that a major road in Bangkok has traded traffic lanes for walking paths.) Pedestrians and cyclists now flock to the cooling shade of the tree-lined pathways emerging from each side of the park.

These roads include bike lanes and wide walkways, so that the public can easily access the park on foot.

 

▼项目效果图 Project effect diagram

 

▼总平面图  Master Plan

 

现在,关于那些猴子的脸颊。 泰国国王普密蓬(Bhumibol)从1946年直到2016年去世,他经常使用猴子脸颊的比喻来描述曼谷如何适应洪水。 正如一只猴子将食物放在嘴里直到它需要吃东西一样,他说,曼谷也应该能够容纳洪水直到城市可以使用它。 这一概念激发了Voraakhom在公园内建造保水组件:绿色屋顶,湿地,滞留草坪和保留池。

Now, about those monkey’s cheeks. King Bhumibol, Thailand’s monarch from 1946 until his death in 2016, often used the metaphor of monkey’s cheeks to describe how Bangkok could adapt to flooding. Just as a monkey holds food in its mouth until it needs to eat, he said, so too should Bangkok be able to hold flood water until the city can use it. This concept inspired Voraakhom to build water-retention components into the park: a green roof, wetlands, a detention lawn and retention pond.

 

雨水从绿色屋顶流过湿地,形成公园两侧的框架,流入蓄水池;雨水也可以聚集在滞留草坪上。

CU Park巧妙地利用了重力的力量。Voraakhom将她的公园设计成三度角,这样重力就会把雨水和洪水从公园的最高点——绿色屋顶——拉到公园另一端的最低点,并在那里填满一个蓄水池。

Rainwater flows from the green roof through wetlands that frame two sides of the park into the retention pond; water can also collect in the detention lawn.
CU Park cleverly harnesses the power of gravity. Voraakhom designed her park to sit at a gradual three-degree angle so that gravity pulls rain and flood water from the park’s highest point — the green roof — to the lowest point at other end of the park, where it fills a retention pond.

 

 

左上方:CU Park博物馆拥有泰国最大的绿色屋顶。右上:它的草坪吸收雨水,为拥挤的城市提供开放空间。底部:10、5米高的绿色屋顶让游客对曼谷有了一种振奋人心的感觉。

Top left: CU Park Museum has the largest green roof in Thailand. Top right: Its lawn absorbs rainwater and offers open space in a crowded city. Bottom: At 10,5 meters, the green roof gives visitors an uplifting perspective on Bangkok.

 

 

公园有泰国最大的绿色屋顶。在公园的西端,一个5220平方米的绿色屋顶覆盖了新的CU公园博物馆。屋顶上覆盖着当地的野草,几乎不需要维护;它的强度足以在7月到10月的雨季吸收大量的水分,也能经受住3月到6月的炎热季节。

Voraakhom在整个公园中最喜欢的地方就是这个高达10.5米(34.4英尺)的绿色屋顶。她说:“通常情况下,曼谷是如此平坦,当你去公园的时候,你不会感受到海拔的升高。”“但在这里,当你进入绿色屋顶,你可以看到城市的新景色,这是一个非常不同的体验。尽管我在这里出生,并在这里生活了一辈子,但这仍然是曼谷的一个非常令人惊讶的景观。

The park has Thailand’s largest green roof. At the western end of the park, a 5,220-square-meter green roof covers the new CU Park Museum. The roof, which is covered with native grasses and weeds, requires little maintenance; it’s both strong enough to absorb large amounts of water during the July-to-October wet season and hardy enough to weather the March-to-June hot season.
Voraakhom’s favorite spot in the entire park is on top of this green roof, which rises 10.5 meters (or 34.4 feet). “Normally Bangkok is so flat, and you don’t experience elevation when you go to a park,” she says. “But here, when you go up into the green roof, you can see the new view of the city, and it’s a very different experience. Even though I was born here and lived here for all of my life, this is still a very surprising view of Bangkok.”

 

 

 

艺术家对绿色屋顶下的储水池和博物馆的看法

储罐藏在绿色屋顶下。屋顶和博物馆下面的三个大水箱可以容纳25万加仑从绿色屋顶流出的水。在旱季,这些蓄水池里的雨水可以让公园保持20天的水分。“落入公园的每一滴水都不会被浪费,”Voraakhom说。博物馆旁边的草坪也可以收集雨水;它圆圆的,像勺子一样的形状可以容纳105,000加仑的水。

An artist’s view of the storage tanks under the green roof and the museum
Storage tanks hide under the green roof. Three large tanks below the roof and museum can hold up to 250,000 gallons of runoff water from the green roof. During the dry season, rainwater in these tanks can keep the park watered for up to 20 days. “No drop of water that falls into the park is wasted,” Voraakhom says. A lawn next to the museum also collects rainwater; its rounded, spoon-like shape can accommodate more than 105,000 gallons of water.

 

 

 

大学生也有很多在公园里消磨时间的好理由。公园两侧有八个室外座位区,还有一个香草园和圆形剧场。“朱拉隆功大学是这座城市最大、最古老的大学,就像曼谷的哈佛大学一样,”Voraakhom说。“因此,公园需要为大学社区服务,为毕业典礼这样的大型活动服务,同时也为周边社区提供娱乐和锻炼的场所。”

University students also have many good reasons to spend time inside the park. There are eight outdoor seating areas that run along the sides of the park, as well as a herb garden and amphitheater. “Chulalongkorn University is the biggest and oldest university in the city, like the Harvard of Bangkok,” Voraakhom says. “So the park needs to serve the university community, for large events like commencements, as well as be a place for recreation and exercise for the surrounding communities.”

 

 

朱拉隆功百年纪念公园旨在应对未来气候变化的不确定性。设计概念使整个公园倾斜,形成一个水容器:凸起的绿色屋顶将径流水引导通过倾斜的雨水花园,在人工湿地中过滤,然后进入保留池。公园的中间草坪是一个拘留区,允许洪水和保留池溢出的空间。公园通过湿地过滤系统处理邻近地区的水。

Chulalongkorn Centennial Park is designed to face future uncertainties of climate change. The design concept inclines the entire park to create a container for water: the raised green roof directs runoff water through sloped rain gardens, filtered in the constructed wetland, and then to the retention pond. The park’s mid-lawn is a detention area, allowing space for flooding and retention pond overflow. The park treats water from neighboring areas by sending it through the wetland filtration system.

 

 

 

 

孩子们在湿地玩耍

湿地过滤水,为孩子们的探索创造空间。雨水也会聚集在沿着公园的四个相连的湿地中,其中包括一连串的水坝和池塘。这片湿地以当地的水生植物为特色,这些植物可以净化和过滤海水,并为孩子们提供一个避风港。“孩子们喜欢在这些地方玩耍,在那里他们可以直接与自然接触,”Voraakhom说。

Children play in the wetlands.
Wetlands filter the water and create space for children to explore. Rain water also collects in four connected wetlands along the park, which contain a cascading series of dams and ponds. The wetlands feature native aquatic plants that clean and filter the water — and provide a haven for children. “Kids love to play in these spaces, where they can engage directly with nature,” says Voraakhom.

 

 

 

固定自行车有两个用途:让人们锻炼身体,防止池塘里的水停滞不前。

在温和的雨中,水流经湿地,进入蓄水池,在那里逐渐蒸发。在一个有趣和实用的触摸,公园游客可以跳上固定的水自行车沿着池塘,同时锻炼的同时保持水的移动和增加氧气。

Stationary bikes serve two purposes: to give people a workout and to keep the pond water from getting stagnant.
During mild rains, water flows through the wetlands and into the retention pond, where it gradually evaporates. In a fun and practical touch, park visitors can hop on stationary water bicycles along the pond, simultaneously exercising while keeping the water moving and adding oxygen to it.

 

 

将公园设计扩展到附近区域,一条主要的相邻公路从四条车道减少到两条车道,有利于加宽人行道和新的自行车道。人行道直接连接到公园的小径,营造出无缝的行人体验。线性雨水花园拥有众多原生植物,沿着道路排水,排列在公园的周边,以保护外围的道路。

Extending the park design into the neighborhood, a major adjacent roadway was reduced from four to two lanes in favor of widened pedestrian walkways and new bike lanes. The walkways connect directly to paths in the park, creating a seamless pedestrian experience. Linear rain gardens, with a multitude of native plants, line the road to absorb water.

 

 

   

 

 

Centennial Park酒店是一个带活动边缘的开放区域。包含景观的“房间”,如药草园,冥想步行和阅读区,坐落在过滤池旁边,与主草坪相连。

Centennial Park is an open area with activated edges. Contained landscape “rooms”, like an herb garden, meditation walk, and reading area, sit adjacent to filtration ponds to line the main lawn.

 

 

但在严重的洪水情况下,通过扩大公园多孔的主草坪,保留池的面积可以增加近一倍。整个公园的设计可以容纳100万加仑的水。“有了蓄水池和草坪,如果整个城市都被洪水淹没,我们可以随时控制洪水,”Voraakhom说。“然后,当城市里所有其他洪水都被排干之后,我们最终可以把公园排入公共污水系统。”

But in the case of severe flooding, the retention pond can nearly double in size by expanding onto the park’s porous main lawn. All together, the park is designed to hold up to one million gallons of water. “With the retention pond and lawns, we can hold the flood water as long as we want if the entire city is flooded,” Voraakhom says. “Then, eventually we can drain the park into the public sewage system when all the other flooding in the city has been drained.”

 

 

 

 

▼黄昏时的铜公园鸟瞰图 An aerial view of CU Park at dusk

 

结语 summarize

当然,一个公园无法控制整个城市的洪水泛滥。它占地11英亩,仅占曼谷总面积的0.003%。但这是一个开始。“我认为CU Park为人们提供了一个机会,让他们更多地思考这个城市以及我们能做什么,”Voraakhom说。“我们怎样才能找到更多孔的解决方案?”这可能包括修复运河,在建筑物和城市农场上建造更多的绿色屋顶(暹罗屋顶农场花园 Siam Green Sky),以及恢复稻田的活力。

Voraakhom继续设想并建立新的方案来保护她心爱的家乡。她刚刚在拉马西菩提医院(Ramathibodhi Hospital)的屋顶上完成了一个巨大的绿色屋顶和疗养花园(泰国最大的屋顶康复花园 Ramathibodi healing garden),这个花园将帮助雨水流入公共污水系统。她还在为曼谷的法政大学(Thammasat University)建造一个占地36英亩的公园,与CU Park一样,这个公园将减轻洪水的影响,预计2019年完工。

Of course, a single park can’t control flooding across an entire city. Its 11 acres represent just 0.003 percent of Bangkok’s footprint. But it’s a start. “I think CU Park gives an opportunity for people to think more about the city and what we can do,” Voraakhom says. “How can we find more porous solutions? These could include canal restoration, creating more green roofs on buildings ( Siam Green Sky )and urban farms, and reviving rice fields.”
Voraakhom continues to imagine and build new solutions to protect her beloved hometown. She’s just comp

Voraakhom set a large green roof and healing garden on the top of Ramathibodhi Hospital, which will help runoff water drain into the public sewage system ( Ramathibodi healing garden). She is also working on a 36-acre park for Thammasat University in Bangkok, which, like CU Park, will mitigate the effects of flooding. It’s slated to be completed in 2019.

 

景观设计:LANDPROCESS Co.,Ltd.
建筑设计:N7A architects Co,. Ltd.
结构工程:(CASE) Civil And Structural Engineers Co.,Ltd.
MEP工程:EEC Engineering Network Co., Ltd. (EEC)
主承包商:Syntec Construction PCL.
施工经理:CONSULTING & MANAGEMENT 49 Co,. Ltd. (CM49)
软景承包商:CORDIA Co., Ltd.
平面设计:G49 Co.,Ltd.
地点:泰国曼谷朱拉隆功大学
面积:公园44,800平方米 (28铁路)路1.57公里(29.4铁路)
范围:总体规划,景观设计
项目状态:2017年3月完工
客户:朱拉隆功大学物业
摄影师:Tinnaphop Chawatin, chakkraphob Sermphasit, VARP STUDIO

Landscape Architect:LANDPROCESS Co.,Ltd.
Architectural Design:N7A architects Co,. Ltd.
Structural Engineering:(CASE) Civil And Structural Engineers Co.,Ltd.
MEP Engineering:EEC Engineering Network Co., Ltd. (EEC)
Main Contractor:Syntec Construction PCL.
Construction Manager:CONSULTING & MANAGEMENT 49 Co,. Ltd. (CM49)
Softscape Contractor:CORDIA Co., Ltd.
Graphic Designer:G49 Co.,Ltd.
Location:Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok, Thailand
Size Area:Park 44,800 sq.m. (28 Rails)Road1.57 km ( 29.4 Rails)
Scope:Master Planning,Landscape Design
Project Status:Completed March 2017
Client:Chulalongkorn University Property
Photographer : Tinnaphop Chawatin, chakkraphob Sermphasit, VARP STUDIO

 

更多新闻资料 More press news:Business Insider

更多 Read more about:LANDPROCESS

 


4 Comments

  1. 参与性+生态型城市公园
    LANDPROCESS一直致力于城市生态恢复,在泰国打造了一系列的抗洪公园,在建筑物和城市农场上建造更多的绿色屋顶,加快雨水的渗透,帮助雨水流入公共污水系统。以及恢复稻田的活力,来保护她心爱的家乡。