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大开建筑设计:近年来,地球的环境形势日趋严重,相关的讨论也越来越受到人们关注。中国是发展中的大国,国民经济一直在高速发展中。与此同时,环境的透支程度也日趋严重,作为环境保护的主力军之一 —— 污水处理站责无旁贷地成为我国经济高速发展过程中必须时刻依靠的重要保障。在这样的背景之下,我们机缘巧合地碰到了这个项目,业主谢明明希望做个环保示范基地。

Dakai Architectural DesignThe global environmental crisis has escalated in recent years, leading to an increased focus on related discussions. China, as a significant developing nation, has experienced rapid economic growth. However, this growth has resulted in severe environmental depletion. In light of this situation, sewage treatment stations, as crucial entities for environmental protection, are imperative in ensuring China’s sustainable development in its rapid economic progress. It is within this context that we fortuitously encountered this project,the owner, Xie Mingming, wanted to create an environmental demonstration site.


▽项目视频 Video

▽项目整体鸟瞰 Aerial view


1 概况 Overview

海口颜春岭垃圾渗滤液处理站,作为神维环境服务公司的二期扩容工程,它的日常工作内容是为日均总量约 1300m³的城市有机废弃污染物进行无害化处理。每时每刻,由市政管网输送过来的墨汁一样浓稠的原水先经过预处理变成茶色超滤出水,最终通过深处理变成可排放的清澈水体。在整个处理工序中,原水要经历原水池、生化池、膜处理车间、净水池,出水池这样几个依次处理的空间。一个类似洗碗槽大小的出水池是这个处理站最终肉眼可见的直观成果,其余的处理过程都在密闭的“腔体空间”或“管体空间”内部进行自动化作业。

The Haikou Yanchunling Waste Leachate Treatment Station serves as the second phase of the expansion project undertaken by Shenwei Environmental Service Company. Its primary objective is to provide safe and environmentally sound treatment for urban organic waste pollutants, with an average daily volume of approximately 1300m³. The treatment process involves several stages, beginning with the reception of dense, ink-like raw water from the municipal pipeline network. The raw water is converted through initial pre-treatment into tea-colored ultra-filtration water, which subsequently undergoes further processing to produce clear water suitable for discharge. This comprehensive treatment process encompasses various sequential treatment spaces, including the original pool, biochemical pool, membrane treatment plant, clean water pool, and the final outlet tank, which is about the size of a dishwasher. The remaining treatment procedures occur automatically within enclosed “chamber spaces” or “tube spaces.”


▽项目鸟瞰 Aerial view


2 思索 Thinking

2.1 标准与个性 Standards and individuality



Historically, China’s approach to industrial plant construction focused primarily on meeting production process requirements, resulting in minimal modifications to form and space. This emphasis on standardization facilitated design and construction efficiency. The modular system, a byproduct of standardization, has particularly benefited construction by introducing assembly conditions and extensive prefabrication, effectively reducing construction time. Standardization has been indispensable in constructing various factory types in modern China. However, it is vital to acknowledge the drawbacks of standardization, such as the potential for visually monotonous and impersonal facade designs lacking individuality.

In the present era, people’s aspirations extend beyond basic needs, encompassing a heightened pursuit of spiritual fulfillment. Architects responsible for modern factory buildings now have a duty to infuse a humanistic touch into the exterior design while ensuring the fulfillment of essential functions. This entails incorporating meaningful elements that allow buildings to exhibit diverse and vibrant shapes, meeting the evolving aesthetic demands of the population. As a result, we have witnessed an increase in factory buildings that showcase unique and distinctive styles in recent years.


▽分析图手绘草图 Analysis diagram freehand sketch

▽分析图 Analysis

▽水流分析 Water flow analysis


▽出水渠和眺望台 Exit canal and observation deck


2.2 传统与现代 Tradition and modernity


Traditionally, there has been a prevailing notion that treatment plants for waste, sewage, and toxins should be located far away from daily life due to associated negative connotations such as bad luck, impurity, and unfavorable Feng Shui. However, modern advancements in science and technology have alleviated these concerns. Dirty waste is transported through closed containers to processing centers, where it undergoes purification and treatment within a hostile pressure environment. The result is clean recycling or energy production without any pollution to the surrounding environment. Consequently, there is no longer a need for treatment plants to be distanced from people’s daily lives, and their proximity can save significant resources. Moreover, contemporary attitudes have shifted, with fewer metaphysical concerns. This allows designers the flexibility to create treatment plants that are adaptable and secure while meeting the necessary requirements.


▽膜处理车间 Membrane treatment plant


2.3 领地与共享 Territory and sharing



Humans, like animals, naturally have a sense of territory in their living and working spaces. We often use fences and walls to protect these spaces, creating barriers that isolate them from the surrounding environment. However, this approach creates negative spaces that need a sense of belonging and hinder interaction with the city, failing to contribute to its vitality. In today’s increasingly crowded cities, sharing is gaining traction. Sharing maximizes resource efficiency and is a product of social development. Open and inclusive spaces are becoming more popular, transforming hostile areas into positive ones that are safe and foster a sense of belonging. This trend can be seen in the opening of central plazas and courtyards in community centers, commercial buildings, and government centers. These shared spaces create lively urban environments. Therefore, we propose applying the concept of sharing to factory design, taking inspiration from these positive trends.


▽水中庭院树下讲堂 Water courtyard under the tree lecture hall


3 实践 Practice

3.1 污与净 Pollution and cleanliness

作为一个污水处理站,其使用主体是水。进来的是污水,进行处理和净化,出去的是净水。水的行为完成了从死到生的轮回仪式,这个过程具有一定的哲学意味。由此,我们通过建筑手法赋予这个过程一定的仪式感:水从低处的城市管网进入厂区—死气沉沉,毫无生机。到了厂区进入处理车间的各种设备,位置开始抬高—-具有了一定的希望和活力。最终净化后提升到高处涅槃重生,焕然一新。然后旋转着泻下—-泽披万物。此刻,建筑师心中的“宇宙”完整了 —— 一个精神空间得以诞生。我们希望体验 了整个过程的人们会沉浸片刻,触发一点点对生命,对环境的思考。

Water is at the core of a sewage treatment station’s operations. It starts as raw sewage and goes through purification, resulting in the release of clean water. This transformation holds deep philosophical meaning. To emphasize this symbolism, we employ architectural techniques to create a sense of ritual. The water’s journey begins when it enters the plant from the city’s pipe network, representing stagnation and lifelessness. It gradually ascends as it progresses through the treatment facilities, symbolizing hope and vitality. Eventually, the purified water reaches a higher point, akin to a fresh start or rebirth, like nirvana. Then, it cascades downward, reflecting the cyclical nature of all things. This complete cycle forms a “universe” within the architect’s mind, giving birth to a spiritual space. We aim to immerse observers in this process, provoking contemplation about life and the environment. We hope this experience sparks reflection and fosters a deeper understanding of the interconnectedness between life and nature.


▽出水计量池 Effluent metering tank


3.2 内与外 Inside and outside



As technology advances, wastewater treatment has become less reliant on labor and can even be automated. This labor liberation has reshaped the factory tour and production concept. Production occurs within enclosed pipes and chambers, shifting the focus from the plant’s interior to the surface of machines. We can stand beside the machines and observe the automated equipment up close, blurring the line between “inside” and “outside.” Humans have transitioned from operators to monitors, and their relationship with machines has shifted from control to attention. The once-avoided wastewater plants are now shared spaces.

Building upon this concept, we reevaluate the spatial layout of the facility. Traditional wastewater treatment centers followed a functional-oriented design, with buildings arranged linearly and prioritizing efficient pipelines. However, in our project, we embrace an enclosed layout. The facility forms a large inner courtyard with concrete biochemical tanks, treatment workshops, and equipment rooms. The entire facility faces the city with a more robust industrial architecture while addressing the needs of equipment and vehicles externally. We focus on water as the main element within the facility, creating a soft core. The interface facing the core consists of transparent, automated processing workshops and warm cast-in-place concrete pool walls, showcasing the unconventional beauty of industrial buildings in a distinctive manner.


▽桥与洞 Bridge and cave


3.3 直与曲 Straight and curved


Traditionally, industrial buildings have followed a functional and square architectural style influenced by Western technology-driven industrial civilization. However, in this project, we aim to embrace social responsibility and incorporate the concept of sharing and openness. As a result, “visiting” becomes an integral part of the building’s function. Drawing inspiration from Oriental wisdom, we turn to the rich traditions of gardens as a medium for our design thinking. We adopt a “touring garden” approach to organize the internal flow of the park. Elements such as pavilions, terraces, corridors, and bridges are borrowed from garden aesthetics and abstracted into the park design. We introduce curved elements by embedding circles of various directions and scales to deviate from the traditional square and neat forms. These “circles” serve as nodes within the park, acting as entrances, exhibition halls, or plant courtyards. The plant is transformed into an open park that invites visibility and visitation through the deliberate arrangement of pathways.


▽通道 passage


3.4 高与低 High and low


Taking advantage of the city road’s higher elevation to the south, we divided the overall plant into high and low areas. The high area features the entrance forecourt, corridor bridges, and exhibition hall, offering visitors a preliminary glimpse of the sewage treatment station’s overall image. They can admire the landscape water, the detailed concrete treatment pool, and the clean and bright workshop. The exhibition hall in the high area utilizes modern holographic projections to explain the wastewater treatment concept to the public. Visitors follow the water-themed clues, descending through the internal staircase to the low area. Visitors pass through the inner courtyard, tree-filled courtyard, and flowing garden within the low area before reaching the sewage treatment workshops. This immersive experience allows them to better understand modern wastewater treatment methods through participation and interaction. Finally, visitors can climb the vertical staircase to the exhibition hall’s roof, enjoying a panoramic view of the park. From there, they witness the clear water pool pouring through a massive conduit onto the roof, which flows back into the courtyard. This finale represents the culmination of the water treatment journey and the visitor’s tour.


▽主楼-展廊 Main Building – Gallery

▽主楼内部螺旋楼梯及水帘 Spiral staircase and water curtain inside main building

▽主楼台阶盘旋而上 The main steps spiral up


4 细节 Details

4.1 桥洞 Bridges

因为高差,我们想到了“桥”的进入方式。又因为建筑功能对高度有要求,所以是穿过建筑而进入场地, 于是出现了“桥洞”。一切都是由环境和功能自己来推导,我们只是旁观者。

The height difference of the site led us to devise an access solution as a “bridge.” Considering the functional requirements of the building, we incorporated the bridge as an entry point. Our approach is rooted in the environment and its inherent functions, and we merely observe and respond accordingly.


▽桥内部 intrabuct

▽桥洞进入入口 Bridge entrance


4.2 图案 Patterns

生化处理池平均壁厚 600mm,需要通体现浇得以耐受巨大的污水压强。鉴于工业建筑在外立面施工的精细度水平,粗戾的表面反而更贴合工厂身份,于是直接设计模板,利用模板纹理,做出一些山形图案,“远山”意向的营造也配合污水厂形成富有东方园林意境的内院。

The biochemical treatment tank requires a substantial wall thickness of 600mm to withstand the significant sewage pressure. Considering the industrial character of the factory, we opted for a rough surface on the facade, aligning with the facility’s identity. We directly designed the template to achieve this effect, utilizing its texture to create multiple mountain patterns. This deliberate choice aims to evoke the ambiance of an oriental garden within the inner courtyard, contributing to a visually appealing sewage treatment plant.


▽立面山形图案 mountain pattern


4.3 材料 Materials


The building incorporates traditional industrial materials such as red bricks, concrete, steel, and glass, reinterpreting industrial architecture through material reorganization. The vibrant red bricks evoke a familiar factory aesthetic, while the textured and voluminous concrete captures light and shadow. Steel imparts strength and symbolism to the structure, and glass serves as transparent exhibition windows for purification equipment in the workshop. We use natural volcanic rock which can be sourced locally for landscaping walls and planters.These natural materials harmoniously blend with the modern garden space, seamlessly merging industry and nature in a balanced manner.


▽材料的重组使用 Recombination of materials used


4.4 分水 Water separation


The garden’s open water features utilize purified discharge water. To maintain water quality, the water from these features is not connected to the quality control port and is discharged separately through a different outlet for reuse.


▽庭院镜面水池 Courtyard mirror pool


4.5 低碳 Low carbon


The building optimizes natural light with skylights and low-emissivity glass curtain walls to lower energy usage and reduce carbon footprint. A rainwater recycling system has been implemented to conserve water resources, specifically for the plant’s green landscape in the central courtyard. Operational data is collected and monitored through a big data platform, enabling scientific analysis for reducing electricity and consumption. Smart controls manage electricity load and pharmaceutical dosage to ensure stable operations with minimal energy and medication use. The project aims to reach carbon peaking by 2025 while maintaining low power and drug consumption, promoting stable and sustainable operations.



5 结语 Conclusion

机器和污水不是没有生命,只是缺少舞台。当它们在聚光灯下发生剧烈的生化反应,足以告诉台下的看客, 这是一出好戏。建筑师和往日的不同是今天搭建了一个开放的舞台来替代盖房子,没刻意导演,所以邂逅了诸多的美丽意外。

Machines and sewage are not inert; they require a stage to perform. When placed under the spotlight, a dynamic biochemical reaction occurs, captivating spectators with its spectacle. In contrast to past architects, modern architects have embraced the concept of an open stage, previous intentional direction, and allowing for serendipitous and remarkable occurrences.


▽设备车间 Equipment workshop


▽总平面图 Plan

▽首层平面 First floor plan

▽立面图 Section



摄影及视频:Chill Shine丘文三映

Project name: Expansion of Haikou Yanchunling Waste Leachate Treatment Station Phase II
Project location: Intersection of Fuyin Road and 2nd Ring Road Southern Section, Chengmai County, Haikou City
Gross built area: 5200㎡
Design year: 2018
Completion Year: 2023
Clients: Haikou Shenwei Environmental Services Co. Xie Mingming
Architectural-landscape-interior Design: Hangzhou Dakai Architectural Design Co.
Leader designer & Team: LiZihuan, ZhaoHui, PanYi, ZhangXiang (Structure), XiangBin, LuoCong, TangSiqi, WangZongjie, LiaoJianwei, ZhangRuiying
Equipment and technical design: Willey Environmental Protection Technology Group Co. Shanghai Environmental Sanitation Engineering Design Institute Co.Ltd
Lighting Design: Hangzhou Aochuang Vision Lighting Design Co.
Specialized Water Design: Hangzhou Tianlei Fountain Equipment Co.
Photo and Video credit: Chill Shine




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