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S&P AK：该大型住宅综合体Forum City，位于俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡市中心的一个典型城市街区。S&P AK景观事务所在LEVS 建筑公司的城市规划和建筑设计中，融入了其广泛的景观规划。他们的新设计不仅恢复了原有的街区格局，更创造了引人入胜的街道氛围，将城市规划、建筑和景观结合在一起，解决了当今城市生活面临的一些最紧迫的问题。
S&P AK：Forum City is a large residential complex occupying a typical city block in the centre of Ekaterinburg in Russia. Within the urban plan and architectural design by LEVS Architecten, S&P Landscape Architecture realised an extensive landscape plan. The new design restores the original block pattern, while creating an engaging street-level atmosphere and brings together urban planning, architecture and landscaping, to solve some of the most pressing problems facing inner-city life today.
城市修复 Repairing the City Plan
One of the problems in the centre of Ekaterinburg, a capital of Sverdlovsk region with over 2 million residents, has been lack of human scale and fragmentation of public spaces. The original city layout, has been broken by subsequent changes and modifications, resulting in loss of connection between urban form and its functions. This became especially visible in many central residential neighbourhoods. When buildings do not align with roads, and the clarity of the layout becomes blurred, one street experience can be difficult to distinguish from another. Spaces become distant and uninviting, marked by characterless open spaces and omnipresent car parks. Combined with apparent lack of coherent green street infrastructure it can create a bleak experience, especially during cold Ural winters with harsh winds blowing the air that reaches temperatures well below -250C. Equally in summer when continental air from central Asia can elevate temperature to blistering +300C, lack of shade and omnipresent concrete can make the streets very unwelcoming. This was the case in the area of Forum City.
The straight grid is a key historical feature of the city-plan development. But often it has been lost because subsequent modifications did not follow the pattern. Forum City attempts to repair Ekaterinburg’s historical urban grid structure, through an introduction of a linear facades that stretch along the thoroughfares surrounding the 103.000 m2 plot. As a result, the designers created a European-style metropolitan experience combined with a green city oasis at its core.
▼大楼设计概念 Concept Towers
▼场地总平面 Site Plan
历史元素：砖砌和市场 Historical elements: brickwork and market
The architectural design reflects Ekaterinburg’s history. In the nineteenth century, the city was predominantly brick-built, with impressive facades, and detailed brickwork everywhere. Many of these were replaced over the course of the twentieth century with concrete high-rises, cladded in steel and glass. The design reflects the transition from past, to present and into the future. The outside facades are straight and of red bricks. The brickwork extends to the tenth floor at most, after which the taller towers climb up to a height of 100 meters, with mostly aluminium and glass fasades. On the inside, the facades facing the inner green courtyards are curved. It allows diagonal views between the towers to open towards the skyline of the surrounding city. This is the cityscape of a new metropolitan lifestyle: a dynamic environment where living, leisure and work blend seamlessly.
The site of Forum City was for many years, the site of one of the city’s main open markets. This idea has also been integrated into the urban design. The existing elongated small shopping mall that extends along the eastern side of the plot will be directly connected to a semi-public courtyard with plants, benches and a fountain, where residents and visitors will be able sit down and relax with a drink. The covered food-court that lies in between is simultaneously a hint at the site’s past function as market and an answer to the modern urbanite’s desire for comfortable, safe dining experiences.
美化城市景观 Greening the urban landscape
即使按照欧洲的标准，为这个项目创造的绿色空间也是不容小觑的。阿姆斯特丹事务所LEVS Architecture与波兰景观工作室S&P landscape Architecture(在华沙和叶卡捷琳堡同时设有办公室)合作完成了这个项目。两家公司都希望将建筑与景观的强烈融合为一种设计方法，以解决解决人口密集城市化地区的生物多样性、气候变化和生活质量问题。
Even by European standards, the green spaces created for this project are ambitious. Amsterdam practice LEVS Architecture worked together on this project with a Polish landscape studio S&P Landscape Architecture – with offices in Warsaw and Ekaterinburg. Both companies share the ambition to use strong blend of architecture and landscape, also as a design method, to deal with concerns over biodiversity, climate change, and quality of life in densely urbanized areas.
In Forum City project, a total of 150 mature trees will be planted, and thousands of shrubs and flowers will be spread out over the inner park, terraces and rooftops. These are commonly planted as young saplings, that still need quite a few years to mature. Planting mature trees, in this case up to 25 years old, will have two important advantages. Firstly, their contributions to the air-quality of the neighbourhood will be immediate. And come next summer, the first renters will be able to enjoy the shade of trees and the cooling effects of large amounts of green surface areas around them.
By planting a wide variety of tree species, the park should have an ever changing colour palette year-round. From evergreen silver pine trees, Canadian hemlock and shrubbery mountain pines, to different shades of green provided by several species of maple and lime, that will turn yellow, orange and scarlet in Autumn. There will be interesting landscapes to explore twelve months a year. The colour range will be enhanced by flowering hydrangeas and roses in summer, and different bark colours of various dogwoods and willows in winter. All trees will come from nurseries in Holland and Germany, specialized in growing large specimens with well-developed yet compact root-systems, making it possible to transport them over long distances before planting. Importantly, the courtyard landscape hides 3-4 story underground car park. Often, in other projects, such structures only allow for some grass and shrub cover. But here, the latest green roof technology have been used to ensure that a stable soil conditions will be created for intensive planting, in which big trees will thrive.
Outside the buildings, places along the surrounding streets, that would otherwise typically host cars have been transformed into green boulevards and squares, where pedestrians and bikers will share a public space and where trees and plants will mark ideal sites to meet a friend or take a break. Linear avenues planted with linden and ornamental crab apples not only add to the visual appeal of the development, they also help to organize the surrounding public areas into zones suitable for different types of user, making the green spaces safer and more appealing.
梦想成真之地 Where dreams become reality
It is not a coincidence that European offices has been involved in this type of large inner city transformation project. One of the great opportunities while working in Russia, is to be given opportunity to transform significantly peoples quality of life, not only inside the buildings, but within the surrounding residential and public urban environments too. The designers were able to draw significantly from their working experiences in Europe where there is a strong tradition of combining the dynamism and activity of a large city with the intimacy of a secluded neighbourhood. Many of the future residents of Forum City aspire to having both.
Open spaces between the towers and the intimate, layered park with easy transitions from semi-public to private areas, are intended to facilitate the mixing of these two complementary lifestyles. It is designed to make it possible for residents to move around, from house, to work, to leisure activity, to day-care centre, to grocery shopping, all on foot. A 15 minute neighbourhood, where all functions are within an easy reach. The landscapes that connect all these elements in the complex are full of small paths and intimate places to explore. Outside the block, along the streets, places that would otherwise typically host cars are have been turned into squares, where pedestrians and bikers share public spaces and where trees and plants mark ideal spots to meet up or take a break. The plan functions like a small city within a bigger city.
From compact apartment to luxury penthouse, and from sky-bar to a bench in the park. From bicycle stand to parking below the trees, and from medical centre to Sunday market. Dreams for a new type of metropolitan, sustainable living environment in an inner city are becoming reality, also in Russia.
景观概念、设计和施工图：S&P Architektura Krajobrazu，华沙、叶卡捷琳堡(www.sztukaipartnerzy.pl )
设计周期：2017 – 2020年
摄影：S&P Architektura Krajobrazu
Location: Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Region, Russian Federation
Name of the Project: FORUM CITY
Client: FORUM Group
Architecture & Urban Planning: LEVS Architecten, Amsterdam (www.levs.nl)
Landscape Concept, Design & Construction Documentation: S&P Architektura Krajobrazu, Warsaw, Ekaterynburg (www.sztukaipartnerzy.pl)
1st Phase completed: 2020
Diagrams and Visualisations: LEVS Architecten
Photographs: S&P Architektura Krajobrazu
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