Thanks SHUISHI for authorizing the publication of the project on mooool, Text description provided by SHUISHI.
SHUISHI: Over the past decades, China’s rapid urbanization and industrialization have developed the cities and strengthened the industry. However, unbalanced and uncoordinated development between the urban and rural areas have become increasingly prominent. Rural vitalization, put forward as a national strategy, makes it an inevitable need for cities to nurture the rural areas and for the industry to nurture the agriculture. Rural vitalization aims to bring back the charm of the countryside, extend and boost the Chinese culture contained in the countryside, and attract more young people and entrepreneurial talent to return to the countryside, to vitalize industries, and make farmers richer and the countryside more beautiful.
01 初见李窑：文化底蕴鲜明的美丽乡村 Liyao Village at First Sight: Beautiful Countryside with Distinct Cultural Heritage
One spring afternoon, the design team came to Liyao Village of Fengxian District for the first time. Liyao Village was listed in the third batch of rural vitalization demonstration villages in Shanghai. It was rated as a beautiful village in 2019. It has a good foundation in the overall rural landscape texture, featuring vast stretches of paddy fields, rich river system, and well-established basic greening landscape. In the village history museum at the entrance of the village, the town leaders said that Liyao enjoyed widespread renown because in the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Li clan moved southward to settle down in the southeast of Qingxi, bought fields and built houses, and ran a number of brick kilns, producing large quantity of quality black bricks. On this basis, the Liyao Village slowly formed, with its own distinct cultural heritage.
▽李窑村改造前状态 State before transformation of Liyao Village
Having heard the story, the architects had a sense of mission, feeling both proud and uneasy, delighted with reverence and awe. There was a time when many beautiful villages were destroyed by excessive renewal, as it broke the heritage, damaged the culture, let alone vitalization.
▽李窑村改造后现状 Status quo of Liyao Village after reconstruction
02 产业策划：挖掘产业独特性，拒绝千村一面 Industrial Planning: Explore Industry Uniqueness, Refuse Stereotype
This rural vitalization is to restructure the “farming, woods, water, fields, roads, bridges and houses” of Liyao Village mainly through the reconstruction of houses, roads and bridges, river dredging, landscape greening and the construction of public service supporting facilities. By establishing the revenue model of “rent + equity + employment income”, it transfers the villagers’ spare houses for landscape transformation. After that, it introduces emerging industries, and integrates the agriculture, commerce, culture and tourism, for multi-business form combination and mutual support, and finally increases the villagers’ incomes.
Under this policy, the design team explored the industrial characteristics of Liyao Village. More than 1,000 mu of paddy rice fields in Liyao Village served as the basis of its agricultural characteristics. In the initial scenario, it was decided to enlarge and strengthen the distinct “kiln culture” of Liyao Village, and spread the local folk art and intangible cultural heritage. It was also to introduce and cultivate new industries and new forms of business, integrate rural vitalization with the development of modern science and technology and cultural industry, and build offices, leisure, sports and accommodation facilities matching with the relevant industries, so that the Liyao people can live and work in peace and contentment here.
▽项目与周边环境鸟瞰 A bird ‘s-eye view of the project and its surroundings
▽项目整体鸟瞰 Bird ‘s-eye view of the project as a whole
On the basis of this industrial framework, the design team reviewed the village texture and quarters, and proposed that the village could roughly comprise six parts: leader area, catering and market area, cultural creativity and elegant collection area, new industry cultivation area, health and residential area, and agricultural market area. In this way, it built a characteristic industrial chain integrating “agriculture + tourism + culture + e-commerce platform + homestay”, fostered an ideal rural life, and turned Liyao Village truly into an “upgraded” rural vitalization model village suitable for living, working, entertainment and tourism.
03 设计方法论：低成本，组装式定制改造 Design Methodology: Low-cost, Assembly-type Customized Renovation
The overall investment of the project is relatively low, totaling 51 million yuan, including the expenses for building renovation and demolition, road and bridge renovation and construction, ecological water environment, greening and landscape. The expenses for building renovation are only 22 million yuan, equivalent to only 650 yuan for a house. It makes new construction impossible. Although the design team deprived the idea of large demolition and construction in the very beginning, the budget still brings great difficulty and challenges to the design work.
In the first phase, it planned to rebuild 133 private houses, with a total floor area of 33,000 square meters. The design team faced more than 100 sets of non-standardized houses built by the farmers without drawings, including some poorly-structured dilapidated houses in bad repair. The overall renovation was really not easy. Therefore, the design team must sort out a set of design methods, to ensure the design effect, control the cost, and facilitate construction. The 133 houses were roughly divided into two categories according to the age of construction: brick-concrete structure buildings around 1990 and western-style houses or villas built after 2000. The focus of the renovation was on the old houses of the 1990s.
▽改造分类与统计 Transform classification and statistics
These houses largely had brick-concrete structure hollow walls, with three rooms in a floor, and stood two to three floors high. They had overhanging floor panels in some parts, and took prefabricated panels as roof boarding. Their overall structural performance was hard to meet the future operation functions and the daily life of the villagers. The focus of the renovation was the south facade, so the relationship between the roof and the balcony turned into the main problem to be solved.
The design team launched extensive reconnaissance and recording work, numbered all the houses in the village, photographed, visited and recorded the houses, so that each house had its own file. Fortunately, the contractor provided a set of UAV aerial photographed BIM electronic model. Although the accuracy was only up to centimeters, it was undoubtedly helpful to the design work.
The design team classified the existing buildings into typical categories, and developed several model styles under targeted researches, including the roof work, eaves styles, structural reinforcement, door and window forms, and material combination. At the same time, it calculated simultaneously the costs, to ensure that every practice and style was feasible within the unit cost, and finally formed a set of basic building modules.
▽标准单体示例改造对比 Comparison of standard monomer examples
The design team selected several demonstration models to combine the basic modules. Since each house has different size and space, no two houses are exactly the same, even after the basic module combination. The richness of buildings and the operability of the design and construction are met at the same time under this method.
▽标准单体示例 Standard monomer Example
▽标准单体示例改造生成 Standard monomer examples are generated
▽标准单体示例剖面图 Sample sections of standard monomer
▽标准单体立面改造前后对比 Comparison of standard single facades before and after renovation
▽标准单体示例平面图 Standard monomer sample plan
Considering the cultural heritage and characteristics of Liyao Village, more black bricks are used as the materials. Restricted by the costs and structures, black bricks and soft stone veneers imitating black bricks are used. In the parts where the facade structure is weak, soft stone veneers are used to replace real black bricks, which meets the effects and lessens burdens to the structure. The project highlights the kiln culture characteristics of Liyao Village, which does not fall into the convention of whitewash walls and black tiles for the whole village in Jiangnan area, but truly achieves one characteristic for one village.
▽样板区建筑鸟瞰 A bird ‘s-eye view of the model buildings
▽特色的青砖黛瓦 Characteristic black tile black tile
Confident with the demonstration model, the design team launched a large-scale scheme design. It assigned raw materials and basic research modules to different working groups, each of which, according to their own functions and the actual situations of the houses, chose different modules for combination assembly, including structural reinforcement methods, roof forms, and window, door and hole designs. Each monomer was placed in the overall base for coordination, and finally the integrity of each group was confirmed. At the same time, it constantly reviewed the costs to ensure the feasibility of the whole project.
▽李窑村建筑模型 Architectural model of Liyao Village
04 多方协作：村民参与，设计整合，现场整合 Multi-party Cooperation: Villagers’ Participation, Design Integration, and On-site Integration
Despite the conceptual scheme yielded initial results, the villagers were unwilling to transfer, so the pace of the deepening the implementation of the design slowed down. However, the time to the final completion and acceptance drew near. In response, whenever a household was transferred, a professional team was immediately arranged to carry out accurate architectural mapping and structure testing. The design team then compared the obtained drawings with the previous BIM draft mold, and designed the construction drawing directly on the mapping drawings.
The typical wall details, doors and windows were fine-tuned according to the surveying and mapping situation. When a set of construction drawings were produced, they were immediately presented to the general contractor for construction at the site. Later, even in the absence of the mapping drawings, parts of the roofs and balconies were demolished and the structures were reinforced according to the experience. The whole process was like a fast revolving assembly line.
▽改造后的建筑与庭院 The renovated buildings and courtyards
▽极具观赏与趣味性的原乡植物 Very ornamental and interesting native plants
With the completion of several model houses, the villagers gradually gained confidence. More and more residents became willing to let their houses transferred and renovated. The number kept growing, from five at the beginning to more than 100 now. All corners of the village had started the renovation project. The villagers paid more and more attention, and put forward many ideas and requirements along with their own living habits. The roles and identities of the architects are multiple in the countryside. In urban projects, the work of architects is only a link of the mature industrial division of labor. But in the countryside, the boundaries of the architects’ works are blurred. The design varies from time to time, and cross-domain integration is common.
In rural areas, when the whole design project is implemented at the operation level, 40% depends on the drawings, 30% on the site adjustment, and 30% on the performance of the construction team and the villagers themselves. In this process, the architect is both a guide and a learner, who should highlight the professional ability and aesthetic value as a designer, and observe, think and even live from the perspective of local villagers and the construction team.
▽接待中心 The reception center
▽接待中心内部 Inside the Reception Center
▽接待中心剖面图 Sectional view of the reception centre
▽接待中心平面图 Reception Center Plan
▽接待中心立面改造前后对比 Comparison of reception center facade reconstruction before and after
▽新建公共卫生间 New public toilet
05 原乡美学：一面野趣田园，一面绿水桃源 Native Aesthetics: Wild Pastoral, Clear Water Paradise
In terms of the overall landscape scheme, the team responds to the natural texture of traditional villages through the design tailored to the local conditions, and implants, softens and transits the scene, through rearranging the space. Having planned and integrated the existing resources, the team starts from the river, farmland, and construction site, to reshape a native, natural “river + field + homestay” rural landscape pattern. It connects the space that has lost its vitality through the “bridge” and, relying on the industry types, increase supporting service outlets to bring the villagers the opportunity to participate in the construction and operation.
▽乡土材料的肌理与运用 Texture and application of local materials
▽休闲廊架 Recreational corridor
▽融入乡村的新建桥梁 New Bridges into the countryside
▽不同形式的桥梁 Different forms of Bridges
From the historical perspective, it explores, inherits and carries forward the excellent culture, folk art and intangible cultural heritage of Liyao, and nourishes the “Liyao native land”. The whole area concentrates cultural exhibition in the village history museum, and via Liyao village black bricks, Qingcun paper cutting, and Dalianxiang folk dance.
From the perspective of cultural display, the most concentrated entrances and exits of the area are equipped with supporting business forms, which provide comprehensive experiences, such as eating, resting, touring and shopping, as well as the unique paddy rice field scenery to customers, so that they can experience the beautiful and comfortable rural life.
▽原有桥梁改造 Reconstruction of existing bridge
The design team aims to create scenery of great regional characteristics. Although people today are used to the so-called comfortable urban life, they also need to experience the vastness of nature. The design team wants to keep the nostalgic memory, create a natural, rustic native aesthetic, and build a beautiful and livable village. It is to build Liyao Village into a happy village cluster, a destination of leisure tourism, and a demonstration village for rural vitalization integrating functional, regional and cultural features.
▽小猫小狗在桥上乘凉休息 Cats and dogs are resting on the bridge
06 李窑新篇章：因地制宜，回应李窑乡土 Liyao New Chapter: Adapting to Local Conditions, Rewarding Liyao People
The renovation project was completed under various intersecting constructions in the time limit of 160 days, including housing renovation, green planting, road renovation and construction. In the process of the renovation, the design and construction did not erase the characteristics of Liyao Village, but truly “took measures according to local conditions”. It launched tailored-made renovation from house to house, investing more time and efforts than pushing down the houses for reconstruction. In this process, it managed to meet the villagers’ feelings for the old houses, and preserved the original appearances of the village as much as possible in the renovation. We expect that the villagers and newcomers can truly live and work in peace and contentment here. The new Liyao Village will pass down the spirit of the kiln culture with a new look in the new space carrier.
方案成员：刘凤翔 孙钰莹 胡波 危正 奚海田 肖斌 杨赫铭 王蒙
林毅冲 蔡尚志 蒋夏丹 张君 徐可昕 郭爽 姬晨晗 王友文 张帅
建筑成员：金江成 胡波 肖斌 刘凤翔 孙钰莹 陈超 王利尧
结构成员：钮杰 曹发恒 陈姝佳
机电成员：魏琪 李金琦 赵舟 陈磊
Project name: rural vitalization of Liyao Village, Fengxian District, Shanghai
Proprietor: Shanghai Dongfang Taoyuan Industrial Development Group Co., Ltd
General construction contractor: CCCC Shanghai Dredging Co., Ltd.
Construction site: Liyao Village, Fengxian District, Shanghai
Building area: 33,620㎡
Design time: 2020
Completion time: 2021
Design unit: SHUISHI
Work content: multi-professional integrated design
Architectural design: SHUISHI -Micron Architects
Host architect: Xu Jinwei
Technical director & field chief architect: Li Wenzhang
Program members: Liu Fengxiang, Sun Yuying, Hu Bo, Wei Zheng, Xi Haitian, Xiao Bin, Yang Heming, Wang Meng, Lin Yichong, Cai Shangzhi, Jiang Xiadan, Zhang Jun, Xu Kexin, Guo Shuang, Ji Chenhan, Wang Youwen, and Zhang Shuai
Construction drawing design: SHUISHI Engineering
Building members: Jin Jiangcheng, Hu Bo, Xiao Bin, Liu Fengxiang, Sun Yuying, Chen Chao, and Wang Liyao
Structure members: Niu Jie, Cao Faheng, and Chen Shujia
Mechanical and electrical members: Wei Qi, Li Jinqi, Zhao Zhou, and Chen Lei
Landscape design: SHUISHI Landscape
Program members: Landscape Department VII, Landscape Technology R&D Department
Construction drawing members: Landscape Department VII, Landscape Technology R&D Department
Ecological water conservancy design: CCCC Shanghai Dredging Institute
Featured landscape beautification design: The Design Institute of Landscape & Architecture China Academy of Art Co., Ltd.
Project photography: Hu Yijie
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